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Journal: Revista de neurologia

167

INTRODUCTION. Encephalitis associated to anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies is an autoimmune neurological pathology that has been reported increasingly more frequently in the paediatric population in recent years. We report two cases from our own experience with similar clinical pictures. CASE REPORTS. Case 1: a 5-year-old girl who began with clinical signs and symptoms of convulsions and altered consciousness, associated to movement disorders and regression of previously acquired abilities that developed into autism. Case 2: a 13-year-old girl who presented left-side hemiparesis, abnormal movements, conduct disorder and dysautonomia. In both cases positive anti-NMDA receptor antibodies were obtained in cerebrospinal fluid and they were diagnosed with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. In the first case, treatment was established with intravenous perfusion of corticoids and immunoglobulins, and rituximab also had to be associated. In the second case, treatment consisted in corticoids and immunoglobulins. Progress was favourable in both cases, with a slight language disorder as a sequela in the first case and a relapse in the second case, with full resolution. CONCLUSIONS. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a treatable disorder and early diagnosis and treatment are crucial, since this improves the prognosis and diminishes the chances of relapses.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Medicine, Medical terms, Rheumatoid arthritis, Multiple sclerosis, Neurology, Medical diagnosis

161

AIM. To compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and vascular events, between patients treated and untreated with antipsychotic drugs. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. A cross-sectional study was done in Barcelona. We compared patients attended in Primary Health Care Centres, treated with or without antipsychotics between 2008 and 2010. Anthropometric measurements, clinical variables, and CVRF were assessed. Adult and elderly patients, typical and atypical antipsychotics, were studied separately. RESULTS. 14,087 patients had been prescribed antipsychotics (63.4% atypical), the most common being risperidone. We selected 13,724 patients with the same age and gender but not treated (total of 27,811 patients). Patients receiving antipsychotic had higher prevalence of obesity (16.9% vs. 11.9%), smoking (22.2% vs. 11.1%), diabetes mellitus (16% vs. 11.9%), and dyslipidemia (32.8% vs. 25.8%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of stroke was significantly higher in the treated patients, both in adults (odds ratio = 2.33) and the elderly (odds ratio = 1.64). The prevalence of coronary heart disease was similar in both groups (odds ratio = 0.97). Among patients treated with antipsychotic, differences were not observed depending typical or atypical ones. CONCLUSIONS. Patients treated with antipsychotic drugs had a greater prevalence of several CVRF (diabetes mellitus, obesity, and smoking). The presence of stroke was higher in those treated with antipsychotics. No relevant differences were observed between patients receiving typical or atypical antipsychotics.

Concepts: Tardive dyskinesia, Typical antipsychotic, Antipsychotic, Atypical antipsychotic, Risperidone

153

INTRODUCTION. Since its earliest days, cinema has been used in the teaching of neurology both to illustrate the professor’s explanations and to make learning easier for students. AIM. To analyse some of the first applications of cinema to the teaching and learning of neurology. DEVELOPMENT. Shortly after the birth of the film projector it became apparent that it could be a valuable aid in teaching medicine, and especially neurology. Initially, actual recordings made by doctors themselves were used, and later documentaries, short films and feature films were employed as means of showing diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as different pathological signs, such as movement disorders. The intention was not to replace other methodologies but instead to complement them and to make the process of acquiring knowledge easier. CONCLUSIONS. Applying cinema in teaching is a useful way to portray the contents of different subjects, especially in the field of neurology, and to favour the acquisition of both specific and cross-disciplinary competences, with very positive results being obtained among students.

Concepts: Medicine, Education, Learning, Film, Feature film, Movie projector, Movie theater, Short film

23

There is a huge disparity in the description of the prevalence and risk factors of periventricular leukomalacia in preterm infants.

Concepts: Diseases and disorders, Periventricular leukomalacia, Spastic diplegia, Preterm birth

5

Research into autism, based mainly on the categorical model in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, has focused above all on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, cognitive mechanisms and the biological-environmental determining factors. Yet, little attention has been paid to the developmental trajectories, which play a decisive role when it comes to establishing a medium- and long-term prognosis.

Concepts: Psychology, Epidemiology, Model theory, Mental disorder, Mathematical logic

5

To analyse the effectiveness of education about pain, quality of life and functionality in patients with fibromyalgia.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Effectiveness, ClinicalTrials.gov

4

Music is the result of a perception in the brain involving a number of cortical and subcortical areas in both brain hemispheres. Increased knowledge about brain plasticity and the numerous neuroimaging studies conducted in recent years have made it possible to further our understanding of the processing of musical stimuli in the brain. This has led to an interest in analysing and studying its application in the non-invasive treatment of certain dysfunctions or diseases with the aim of helping to achieve an improved quality of life.

4

Some epileptic syndromes are characterised by seizures that are difficult to control and are associated to delayed neuropsychomotor development, which results in a deterioration in the patient’s quality of life as well as in that of his or her family.

Concepts: Epilepsy, Seizure, Postictal state, Myoclonus

4

AIM. To analyse the effectiveness of therapeutic exercise on migraines and tension-type headaches (TTH). MATERIALS AND METHODS. Electronic databases were used to search the literature for relevant articles. Eligibility criteria were: controlled randomised clinical trials (RCT), conducted on patients with migraine or TTH, in which the therapeutic intervention was based on therapeutic exercise, and the papers had been published in English and Spanish. Two independent reviewers performed the analysis of the methodological quality using the Delphi scale. RESULTS. Ten RCT were selected, seven of which offered good methodological quality. According to all the studies analysed, the intensity and frequency of pain diminished in comparison to the situation prior to establishing therapeutic exercise, and in five studies the effect was higher than in the control group. The qualitative analysis showed strong evidence of the absence of adverse events following the application of therapeutic exercise. Furthermore, strong evidence was also found of the effect of physiotherapeutic treatment, including therapeutic exercise, in lowering the intensity, frequency and duration of pain in patients with TTH. Limited evidence was also found of the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients with migraine, although it was not better than the effects derived from other forms of treatment. CONCLUSIONS. Results show that therapeutic exercise is a safe treatment that provides beneficial effects on migraines or TTH. Further RCT are required in the future with appropriate methodological designs to confirm these results.

Concepts: Scientific method, Clinical trial, Effect, Randomized controlled trial, Effectiveness, Clinical research, Strength training, Tension headache

3

The current epidemic outbreak due to Zika virus began in 2015 and since then it has been reported in 31 countries and territories in America. The epidemiological and clinical aspects related to infection by Zika virus are reviewed.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Infectious disease, Virus, Herpes simplex virus, Rabies, Epidemic, Outbreak, Neurotropic virus