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Journal: Resuscitation


OBJECTIVE: Anterior chest thrusts (with the subject sitting or standing and thrusts applied to the lower sternum) are recommended by the Australian Resuscitation Council as part of the sequence for clearing upper airway obstruction by a foreign body. Lateral chest thrusts (with the victim lying on their side) are no longer recommended due to a lack of evidence. We compared anterior, lateral chest and abdominal thrusts in the generation of airway pressures using a suitable animal model. METHODS: This was a repeated-measures, cross-over, clinical trial of eight anaesthetised, intubated, adult pigs. For each animal, ten trials of each technique were undertaken with the upper airway obstructed. A chest/abdominal pressure transducer, a pneumotachograph and an intra-oesophageal balloon catheter recorded chest/abdominal thrust, expiratory air flows, airway and intrapleural pressures, respectively. RESULTS: The mean (SD) thrust pressures generated for the anterior, lateral and abdominal techniques were 120.9 (11.0), 135.2 (20.0), and 142.4 (27.3) cmH(2)O, respectively (p<0.0001). The mean (SD) peak expiratory airway pressures were 6.5 (3.0), 18.0 (5.5) and 13.8 (6.7) cmH(2)O, respectively (p<0.0001). The mean (SD) peak expiratory intrapleural pressures were 5.4 (2.7), 13.5 (6.2) and 10.3 (8.5) cmH(2)O, respectively (p<0.0001). At autopsy, no rib, intra-abdominal or intra-thoracic injury was observed. CONCLUSION: Lateral chest and abdominal thrust techniques generated significantly greater airway and pleural pressures than the anterior thrust technique. We recommend further research to provide additional evidence that may inform management guidelines for clearing foreign body upper airway obstruction.

Concepts: Sternum, Pressure, Thorax, Obstructive lung disease, Pleural cavity, Victim, Thrust, Pressure sensor


The survival rate of sudden Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests (OHCAs) increases by early notification of Emergency Medical Systems (EMS) and early application of basic life support (BLS) techniques and defibrillation. A Text Message ™ alert system for trained volunteers in the community was implemented in the Netherlands to reduce response times. The aim of this study was to assess if this system improves survival after OHCA.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Asystole, Emergency medical services, Emergency medical technician, Prostitution in the Netherlands, North Sea, Basic life support


Cardiac arrest (CA) survivors experience cognitive deficits including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear whether these are related to cognitive/mental experiences and awareness during CPR. Despite anecdotal reports the broad range of cognitive/mental experiences and awareness associated with CPR has not been systematically studied.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Complex post-traumatic stress disorder, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Stress


To summarise the evidence from randomised controlled trials of mechanical chest compression devices used during resuscitation after out of hospital cardiac arrest.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Avicenna, Cardiac arrest, Asystole, Meta-analysis, Publication bias


Cardiac arrest associated with drowning is a major public health concern with limited research available on outcome. This investigation aims to define the population at risk, and identify factors associated with neurologically favourable survival.

Concepts: Health care, Public health, Health, Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, Drowning, Artificial respiration


OBJECTIVES: Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) are lifesaving, but little is known about where they are located or how to find them. We sought to locate AEDs in high employment areas of Philadelphia and characterize the process of door-to-door surveying to identify these devices. METHODS: Block groups representing approximately the top 3rd of total primary jobs in Philadelphia were identified using the US Census Local Employment Dynamics database. All buildings within these block groups were surveyed during regular working hours over six weeks during July-August 2011. Buildings were characterized as publically accessible or inaccessible. For accessible buildings, address, location type, and AED presence were collected. Total devices, location description and prior use were gathered in locations with AEDs. Process information (total people contacted, survey duration) was collected for all buildings. RESULTS: Of 1420 buildings in 17 block groups, 949 (67%) were accessible, but most 834 (88%) did not have an AED. 283 AEDs were reported in 115 buildings (12%). 81 (29%) were validated through visualization and 68 (24%) through photo because employees often refused access. In buildings with AEDs, several employees (median 2; range 1-8) were contacted to ascertain information, which required several minutes (mean 4; range 1-55). CONCLUSIONS: Door-to-door surveying is a feasible, but time-consuming method for identifying AEDs in high employment areas. Few buildings reported having AEDs and few permitted visualization, which raises concerns about AED access. To improve cardiac arrest outcomes, efforts are needed to improve the availability of AEDs, awareness of their location and access to them.

Concepts: Surveying, Automated external defibrillator


BACKGROUND: Despite evidence to suggest significant spatial variation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) rates, geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis have not been widely used to understand the reasons behind this variation. This study employs spatial statistics to identify the location and extent of clusters of bystander CPR in Houston and Travis County, Texas. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival for two U.S. sites - Austin-Travis County EMS and the Houston Fire Department - between October 1, 2006 and December 31, 2009. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between income and racial/ethnic composition of a neighborhood and BCPR for OHCA and to adjust expected counts of BCPR for spatial cluster analysis. The spatial scan statistic was used to find the geographic extent of clusters of high and low BCPR. RESULTS: Results indicate spatial clusters of lower than expected BCPR rates in Houston. Compared to BCPR rates in the rest of the community, there was a circular area of 4.2km radius where BCPR rates were lower than expected (RR=0.62; p<0.0001 and RR=0.55; p=0.037) which persist when adjusted for individual-level patient characteristics (RR=0.34; p=0.027) and neighborhood-level race (RR=0.34, p=0.034) and household income (RR=0.34, p=0.046). We also find a spatial cluster of higher than expected BCPR in Austin. Compared to the rest of the community, there was a 23.8km radius area where BCPR rates were higher than expected (RR=1.75, p=0.07) which disappears after controlling for individual-level characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: A geographically targeted CPR training strategy which is tailored to individual and neighborhood population characteristics may be effective in reducing existing disparities in the provision of bystander CPR for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Concepts: Spatial analysis, Geography, Geographic information system, Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, Artificial respiration, Geostatistics


The best performing early warning score is Vitalpacâ„¢ Early Warning Score (ViEWS). However, it is not known how often, to what extent and over what time frame any early warning scores change, and what the implications of these changes are.

Concepts: Medical terms, Patient, Physician, Illness, Scores, Change, 2006 albums, Abraham Lincoln


INTRODUCTION: Various supraglottic airway devices are routinely used to maintain airway patency in children and adults. However, oropharyngeal airways or laryngeal masks (LM) are not routinely used during neonatal resuscitation. METHOD: The aim of this article was to review the available literature about the use of supraglottic airway devices during neonatal resuscitation. We reviewed books, resuscitation manuals and articles from 1830 to the present using the search terms “Infant”, “Newborn”, “Delivery Room”, “Resuscitation”, “Airway management”, “Positive Pressure Respiration”, “Oropharyngeal Airway” and “Laryngeal Mask”. RESULTS: No study was identified using oropharyngeal airways during neonatal resuscitation. Four trials including 509 infants compared positive pressure ventilation with a LM, bag and mask or an endotracheal tube. Infants in the LM group were intubated less frequently compared to infants in the bag and mask ventilation group 4/275 vs. 28/234 (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.05-0.34). Infants resuscitated with the LM had significantly less unsuccessful resuscitations 4/275 vs. 31/234 (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.03-0.28). Two trials including 34 preterm infants compared surfactant administration via LM vs. endotracheal tube. LM surfactant administration was safe and no adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: The efficacy and safety of oropharyngeal airways during neonatal resuscitation remain unclear and randomized trials are required. The current evidence suggests that resuscitation with a LM is a feasible and safe alternative to mask ventilation in infants >34 weeks gestation and birth weight >2000g. However, further randomized control trials are needed to evaluate short- and long-term outcomes following use of laryngeal masks. In addition, surfactant administration via LM should be used only within clinical trials.

Concepts: Childbirth, Infant, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Endotracheal tube, Laryngeal mask airway, Oropharyngeal airway, Airway management


The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has initiated a near-continuous review of cardiopulmonary resuscitation science that replaces the previous 5-year cyclic batch-and-queue approach process. This is the first of an annual series of International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations summary articles that will include the cardiopulmonary resuscitation science reviewed by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation in the previous year. The review this year includes 5 basic life support and 1 paediatric Consensuses on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Each of these includes a summary of the science and its quality based on Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria and treatment recommendations. Insights into the deliberations of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task force members are provided in Values and Preferences sections. Finally, the task force members have prioritised and listed the top 3 knowledge gaps for each population, intervention, comparator, and outcome question.

Concepts: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, First aid, Emergency medical services, Defibrillation, American Heart Association, Advanced life support, Basic life support, International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation