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Journal: Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)


Ovarian cryopreservation followed by autotransplantation is still considered an experimental strategy for fertility preservation (FP) mainly because the success rates are unknown.

Concepts: Fertility, Fertility preservation


Objectives:Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) represents the most complex form of endometriosis and its treatment is still challenging. The coexistence of DIE with other appearances of endometriosis stimulates new studies to improve the preoperative diagnosis. Adenomyosis is a clinical form that shares several symptoms with DIE. The present study investigated the possible presence of adenomyosis in a group of women with DIE and its impact on pre- and postoperative symptoms.Materials and Methods:A group of women (n = 121) undergoing laparoscopic treatment for DIE were enrolled. Clinical and ultrasound evaluations were performed as preoperative assessment. The ultrasonographical appearances of DIE and of adenomyosis were recorded by 2-dimensional ultrasound. The following symptoms were considered: dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, abnormal uterine bleeding, bowel, and urinary symptoms. Pain was evaluated by the visual analog scale system and menstrual bleeding was assessed by the use of the pictorial blood assessment chart. In a subgroup of women (n = 55), a follow-up evaluation (3-6 months after surgery) was done.Results:A relevant number of patients with DIE showed adenomyosis (n = 59; 48.7%); in this group, dysmenorrhea (P = .0019), dyspareunia (P = .0004), and abnormal uterine bleeding (P < .001) were statistically higher than that in the group with only DIE. After surgery, painful symptoms improved in the whole group but remained significantly higher (P < .001) in the group with adenomyosis.Conclusions:Deep infiltrating endometriosis is frequently associated with adenomyosis, significantly affecting pre- and postoperative symptoms and thus influencing the follow-up management.

Concepts: Combined oral contraceptive pill, Menopause, Menstrual cycle, Endometrium, Menstruation, Endometriosis, Adenomyosis, Menorrhagia


The etiology of endometriosis remains poorly understood but circulating stem cells may contribute. Telomeres shorten with cell divisions and age. Stem cells attempt to compensate for telomere attrition through the action of telomerase. Since circulating stem cells may contribute to endometriosis, we compared telomere content in lymphocytes of patients with and without endometriosis.Methods:Observational study comparing peripheral lymphocytes telomere content, measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in patients with (n = 86) and without endometriosis (n = 21).Findings:Patients with endometriosis had longer telomeres than that of matched, endometriosis-free controls (telomere to single copy gene ratio [T/S ratio] of 1.62 vs 1.34, respectively, P = .00002). Patients with endometriosis were 8.1-fold more likely to have long telomeres. (odds ratio = 8.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.28-51.57, P = .0264).Interpretation:Longer telomeres could be consistent with a stem cell origin of endometriosis.

Concepts: DNA, Gene expression, Enzyme, Cell division, Stem cell, Chromosome, DNA replication, Reverse transcriptase


Myoinositol (MI) and d-chiroinositol (DCI) are 2 stereoisomers and insulin sensitizers. Their physiological ratio differs from tissue to tissue, and they are regulated by an insulin-dependent epimerase whose activity is drastically reduced in conditions of insulin resistance. Based on literature data and on the fact that MI phospholipids are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) second messengers, we speculated that patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) having hyperinsulinemia, present an enhanced MI to DCI epimerization in the ovary, leading to MI deficiency that impairs FSH signaling, resulting in reduced oocyte quality. In the present study, 20 patients with PCOS and 20 healthy women were enrolled for measurement of MI and DCI levels in their follicular fluid. Follicular fluid samples were taken using a vaginal probe and both MI and DCI were quantified analytically. Results showed that the ratio of MI-DCI dropped from 100:1 in healthy participants to 0.2:1 in patients with PCOS who additionally displayed significantly higher levels of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and luteinizing hormone. This study is the first one to analyze the misbalance in the MI-DCI ratio in the ovary of patients with PCOS, supporting the concept that maintaining the physiological levels of the 2 stereoisomers is crucial, in restoring the ovarian functionality.

Concepts: Signal transduction, Hormone, Menopause, Endocrinology, Luteinizing hormone, Metformin, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Polycystic ovary syndrome


Several studies suggest that resistance to progesterone may contribute to the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Progesterone mediates its biological activity via the 2 progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms (PR-A and PR-B). Effects of progesterone are determined by the PR-A:PR-B ratio such that a PR-B-dominant state promotes progesterone signaling, whereas a PR-A-dominant state decreases progesterone responsiveness. Our objective was to compare the abundance and cellular localization of the PR isoforms in endometrium and endometriotic lesions from women with and without peritoneal and ovarian endometriosis.

Concepts: Estrogen, Menstrual cycle, Endometrium, Corpus luteum, Progesterone, Endometriosis, Selective progesterone receptor modulator


Mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a major cause of age-induced decline in oocyte quality. In the past, donor oocyte cytoplasmic transfer showed some success but was abandoned due to the concerns with heteroplasmy. Recent studies indicated presence of oogonial precursor cells (OPCs) in the human ovary, which could be an autologous source of “healthy mitochondria.” We sought to investigate the clinical efficacy of OPC-derived autologous mitochondrial injection (AMI) to improve oocyte quality in women with multiple in vitro fertilization (IVF) failures.

Concepts: Cell, Reproduction, Eukaryote, Mitochondrion, Mitochondrial DNA, Cytosol, Cytoplasm, In vitro fertilisation


The aim of this study was to clarify the expression of Ninj1 in endometriosis and adenomyosis lesions, and its inductive factor in human endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs).


The oviduct/fallopian tube is a crucial organ in the mammalian reproductive tract; it plays a critical role in gamete transportation and early embryo development. In women, torsion of the fallopian tubes can cause ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury. In this study, we tested the effect of this injury on recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to the oviducts of reproductive age female mice. Bone marrow-derived cells were collected from ubiquitin-green fluorescent protein-positive male mice and transplanted into wild-type female mice. Ischemia and reperfusion injury was performed in half of the mice, while controls received equivalent surgery without oviduct injury. Two weeks following injury, recruitment of BMDCs to the oviducts was analyzed in both groups. Ischemia and reperfusion injury caused a greater than 2-fold increase in BMDC recruitment to the injured oviducts compared to those without injury. Specifically, the recruitment of BMDCs was localized to the stroma of the oviduct. We demonstrate that IR injury to oviduct recruits BMDCs to this tissue and suggest that BMDCs have function in the healing process.


A multitude of factors promotes inflammation in the reproductive tract leading to preterm birth. Macrophages peak in the cervix prior to birth and their numbers are increased by the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We hypothesize GM-CSF is produced from multiple sites in the genital tract and is a key mediator in preterm birth.


The effectiveness of emergency contraception (EC) is usually estimated by comparing the number of observed pregnancies to that of expected pregnancies after unprotected intercourse. Second-generation selective progesterone receptors modulators have been developed and evaluated for EC use. Among these compounds, ulipristal acetate (UPA) has been proven to share the same antiprogestin activity as mifepristone, and as with mifepristone, UPA has been demonstrated to be effective up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse. The UPA is more effective than levonorgestrel (LNG) in preventing the appearance of clinically evident pregnancies. The LNG delays ovulation only when taken at the beginning of the fertile period; taken later, it is ineffective on ovulation, while it has been proven to impair the subsequent luteal function. The effectiveness of LNG decreases as time elapses and is limited to 72 hours after unprotected intercourse. The UPA maintains consistent effectiveness for 5 days after unprotected intercourse, and this effectiveness is independent on which of these 5 days it is taken. The ability of UPA to delay ovulation decreases progressively as ovulation approaches and is null at the time of the luteinizing hormone (LH) peak: 1 to 2 days before ovulation, UPA behaves as a placebo. The persistent effectiveness of the drug cannot be due to antiovulatory action, as it decreases sharply as LH approaches its peak level. The effectiveness is most likely due to the dramatic endometrial effects of the drug that are produced regardless of when it is taken. These effects are consistently present, as the threshold for altering endometrial morphology is lower than the threshold for altering folliculogenesis.

Concepts: Emergency contraception, Hormonal contraception, Luteinizing hormone, Menstrual cycle, Corpus luteum, Progesterone, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Ovulation