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Journal: Radiology and oncology

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Advanced follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are incurable diseases with conventional treatment. The high dose treatment (HDT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), however, offers a certain proportion of these patients the prospect of a prolonged disease-free and overall survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with FL and MCL treated with ASCT.

Concepts: Cancer, Disease, Cure, Chemotherapy, Types of cancer, Lymphoma, Follicular lymphoma, Mantle cell lymphoma

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Endometrial cancer (EC) represents a high health burden in Slovenia and worldwide. The incidence is increasing due to lifestyle and behavioural risk factors such as obesity, smoking, oestrogen exposure and aging of the population. In many cases, endometrial cancer is diagnosed at an early stage due to obvious signs and symptoms. The standard treatment is surgery with or without adjuvant therapy, depending on the stage of the disease and the risk of recurrence. However, treatment modalities have changed in the last decades, considerably in the extent of lymphadenectomy.

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The study investigated the influence of GCLC, GCLM, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms, as well as the influence of interactions between polymorphism and interactions between polymorphisms and asbestos exposure, on the risk of developing pleural plaques, asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma (MM).

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Recurrent bleeding from gastroesophageal varices is the most common life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. According to guidelines, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) should not be used as a first-line treatment and should be limited to those bleedings which are refractory to pharmacologic and endoscopic treatment (ET). To our knowledge, long-term studies evaluating the role of elective TIPS in comparison to ET in patients with recurrent variceal bleeding episodes are rare.

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In the setting of cirrhotic liver, the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is straightforward when typical imaging findings consisting of arterial hypervascularity followed by portal-venous washout are present in nodules larger than 1 cm. However, due to the complexity of hepatocarcinogenesis, not all HCCs present with typical vascular behaviour. Atypical forms such as hypervascular HCC without washout, isovascular or even hypovascular HCC can pose diagnostic dilemmas. In such cases, it is important to consider also the appearance of the nodules on diffusion-weighted imaging and hepatobiliary phase. In this regard, diffusion restriction and hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase are suggestive of malignancy. If both findings are present in hypervascular lesion without washout, or even in iso- or hypovascular lesion in cirrhotic liver, HCC should be considered. Moreover, other ancillary imaging findings such as the presence of the capsule, fat content, signal intensity on T2-weighted image favour the diagnosis of HCC. Another form of atypical HCCs are lesions which show hyperintensity on hepatobiliary phase. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide an overview of HCCs with atypical enhancement pattern, and focus on their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features.

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Background The aim of the study was to assess the association between physical and biological dose normalized to volume of the metastatic tumor as well as clinical factors with local control in patients with brain metastases who underwent robotic stereotactic radiosurgery. Patients and methods A cohort of 69 patients consecutively treated with robotic radiosurgery between 2011 and 2016 was analyzed. The patients were treated with either single fraction radiosurgery or hypofractionated regimens. Biologically effective dose (BED) was calculated assuming alpha/beta value = 10 and both physical dose and BED were normalized to the tumor volume to allow dose-volume effect evaluation. Moreover, clinical and treatment-related variables were evaluated to asses association with local control. Results A total of 133 tumors were irradiated and their volumes ranged between 0.001 and 46.99 cm3. Presence of extracranial progression was associated with worse local control whereas higher total dose, BED10 > 59 Gy and single metastasis predicted statistically significantly better local outcome. BED10/cm3 > 36 Gy, and BED2 > 60 Gy negatively affected local control in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis performed on all these variables, presence of a single metastasis, BED10 > 59 Gy and extracranial progression retained their significance. Excluding a priori the BED2/ cm3 parameter resulted with a Cox model confirming significance of all remaining variables. Conclusions Hypofractionated treatment schemes have similar efficiency to single fraction treatment in terms of local control and the effect depends on BED irrespective of fractionation schedule. Effective control of extracranial sites of the disease is associated with higher probability of local control in the brain which in turn is consistently lower in patients with multiple lesions.

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Background The aim of the study was to determine the value of synchronous liver resection in patients with oligo-metastatic gastric cancer and the prognostic factors in these patients. Patients and methods We compared the results of 21 gastric patients with liver metastases and synchronous liver resection (LMR) to 21 propensity score-matched patients with gastric cancer and liver metastases in whom liver resection was not performed (LM0) and to a propensity score-matched control group of 21 patients without liver metastases and stage III and IV resectable gastric cancer (CG). Results The overall 5-year survival of LMR, LM0 and CG were 14.3%, 0%, and 19%, respectively (p = 0.002). Five-year survival was 47.5% for well-differentiated tumour compared to 0% in patients with moderate or poor tumour differentiation (p = 0.006). In addition, patients with R0 resection and TNM stage N0-1 had a significantly better survival compared to patients with TNM N stage N2-3 (5-year survival: 60% for N0-1 vs. 7.7% for N2-3; p = 0.007). Conclusions The results presented in the study support synchronous liver resections in gastric patients and provide additional criteria for patient selection.

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Background Due to the rarity of primary bone tumors, precise radiologic diagnosis often requires an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. In order to make the diagnosis more precise and to prevent the overlooking of potentially dangerous conditions, artificial intelligence has been continuously incorporated into medical practice in recent decades. This paper reviews some of the most promising systems developed, including those for diagnosis of primary and secondary bone tumors, breast, lung and colon neoplasms. Conclusions Although there is still a shortage of long-term studies confirming its benefits, there is probably a considerable potential for further development of computer-based expert systems aiming at a more efficient diagnosis of bone and soft tissue tumors.

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Background Higher concentrations of seminal reactive oxygen species may be related to male infertility. Astaxanthin with high antioxidant activity can have an impact on the prevention and treatment of various health conditions, including cancer. However, efficacy studies on astaxanthin in patients with oligospermia with/without astheno- or teratozoospermia (O±A±T) have not yet been reported. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the oral intake of astaxanthin on semen parameters. Patients and methods In a randomized double-blind trial, 80 men with O±A±T were allocated to intervention with 16 mg astaxanthin orally daily or placebo. At baseline and after three months basic semen parameters, sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of spermatozoa and serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) value were measured. Results Analysis of the results of 72 patients completing the study (37 in the study group, 35 in the placebo group) did not show any statistically significant change, in the astaxanthin group no improvements in the total number of spermatozoa, concentration of spermatozoa, total motility of spermatozoa, morphology of spermatozoa, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa or serum FSH were determined. In the placebo group, statistically significant changes in the total number and concentration of spermatozoa were determined. Conclusions The oral intake of astaxanthin did not affect any semen parameters in patients with O±A±T.

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Background Survival of children with cancer in Eastern and Central Europe is 10-20% lower than in high income European countries. We evaluated outcome of children and adolescents with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in Slovenia, Croatia, Slovakia and in Romania. Patients and methods We retrospectively analysed event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients treated in Slovenia and Croatia. Slovakia included patients from two centers, representing half of expected cases. Romania included patients from single institution, representing only 10% of expected patients. Joint database for analysis was established. Results One hundred seventy-eight children and adolescent with RMS diagnosed from January 2000 to December 2015 were included. Mean patient age at diagnosis was 7.7 years, one third was older than 10 years. Twenty-five percent had alveolar histology and 72% unfavorable location. Higher than expected proportion of patients had nodal involvement (24%) or metastatic disease (27%). All patients received systemic chemotherapy, 57% had radiotherapy and 63% surgery as local control. Kaplan- Meier estimates for 5-year EFS and OS were 50.7% and 59.6%, respectively. Five-year OS for patients with localised disease was 72% compared to 24% for metastatic disease. Conclusions Children with RMS treated in Eastern and Central Europe have inferior outcome compared to their counterparts treated in high income European countries. Active participation of low health expenditures average rates (LHEAR) countries in international clinical trials may improve outcome of paediatric oncology patients.