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Journal: Public health nutrition


To evaluate the relationship between dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive views and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese women.

Concepts: Nutrition, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes, Gestational diabetes


To determine the demographic profile of fast-food consumers among adult Singapore residents and ascertain whether fast-food consumption frequency is associated with diet quality and weight status.

Concepts: Demography, Demographics, Demographic profile


To examine how increasing vegetable consumption from foods prepared at home (FAH) and foods prepared away from home (FAFH) would impact energy, dietary fibre and Na (sodium) intakes in the USA.

Concepts: Nutrition, United States, Vegetable, Maize, Dietary fiber, Native Americans in the United States, Cooking, Broccoli


OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to investigate the associations of total n-3 fatty acid and SFA intakes with insulin resistance in a Canadian First Nation sample at risk for type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Fasting values for glucose and insulin were used to estimate insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Intakes of n-3 fatty acids and SFA were computed from dietary food and drink data obtained using 3 d food records. Associations between HOMA-IR and dietary n-3 and SFA consumption were tested using linear regression models accounting for age, sex, community, education, physical activity, waist circumference, fibre, protein and carbohydrate intakes, and HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations. SETTING: Rural Okanagan region of British Columbia, Canada. SUBJECTS: On-reserve First Nation individuals (Interior Salishan) aged 18 years and over, recruited for community-based diabetes screening and determined to be normoglycaemic (n 126). RESULTS: HOMA-IR was negatively associated with dietary n-3 fatty acid intake (β = -0·22; 95 % CI -0·39, -0·04; P = 0·016) and positively associated with dietary SFA intake (β = 0·34; 95 % CI 0·15, 0·53; P = 0·0 0 1). CONCLUSIONS: Intake of dietary n-3 fatty acids may be protective against whereas SFA intake may promote insulin resistance in this high-risk Canadian First Nation sample. Reduced dietary SFA intake and greater n-3 fatty acid intake may assist the prevention of glycaemic disease among First Nations peoples. More rigorous, controlled trials are required to test whether dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in natural or supplement-based form might reduce diabetes risk in high-risk aboriginal groups.

Concepts: Nutrition, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Omega-3 fatty acid, Fat, First Nations


OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of iron depletion (ID), iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) and risk of haemoconcentration during pregnancy and at delivery and to assess the influence of initial Fe stores and Fe supplementation on that prevalence. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Hospital Universitari Sant Joan de Reus (Catalonia, Spain). SUBJECTS: Two hundred and eighty-five pregnant women. Serum ferritin and Hb were measured in the first, second and third trimesters and at delivery. Women were classified according to initial Fe stores as ID or no ID (serum ferritin ≥12 μg/l) and according to Fe supplement use as supplemented or non-supplemented. RESULTS: Initial ID was 16·2 %. At delivery, 45·7 % had ID, 13·5 % IDA and 13·3 % had risk of haemoconcentration. Initial ID and non-supplemented groups had significantly higher prevalences of ID and IDA and lower risk of haemoconcentration at delivery than the other groups. In the multiple logistic models, no initial ID and Fe supplementation exerted a protective effect against ID at delivery (adjusted OR = 0·28; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·58 and adjusted OR = 0·39; 95 % CI 0·22, 0·69, respectively). Moderate Fe supplementation did not seem to clearly prevent IDA (adjusted OR = 0·91; 95 % CI 0·42, 1·96) or to enhance the haemoconcentration (adjusted OR = 1·42; 95 % CI 0·58, 3·50). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ID and IDA was high in late pregnancy in healthy pregnant women, particularly in those with initial ID and/or those not taking supplements. Starting pregnancy with no ID and/or taking moderate Fe supplementation decreased the likelihood of ID at delivery. The risk of haemoconcentration was high at delivery, but did not seem to be promoted by Fe supplementation. Further research is necessary to determine the most appropriate nutritional advice for pregnant women.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Iron, Folic acid, Iron deficiency anemia, Human iron metabolism, Iron supplements, Trimester


OBJECTIVE: Results of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative indicated that on average one out of four primary-school children is overweight or obese. Portugal presented one of the highest prevalences of obesity. Childhood obesity prevention and treatment should be a top priority. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Program Obesity Zero (POZ), a multi-component, community-, family- and school-based childhood obesity intervention. DESIGN: Parents and children attended four individual nutrition and physical activity counselling sessions, a one-day healthy cooking workshop and two school extracurricular sessions of nutrition education. Waist circumference, BMI, physical activity level, sedentary behaviours, and nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes and behaviour were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Diet was assessed using two 24 h recalls, at baseline and at 6 months. SETTING: Five Portuguese municipalities and local communities. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and sixty-six overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) aged 6-10 years, from low-income families in five Portuguese municipalities, were assigned to the intervention. RESULTS: Children showed reductions in waist circumference (-2·0 cm; P < 0·0001), mean BMI (-0·7 kg/m2; P < 0·0001) and BMI-for-age percentile (-1·7; P < 0·0001) at 6 months. Overall, children's intake of fruit and vegetables was <400 g/d throughout the intervention. After 6 months, higher fibre consumption and an apparent decrease in sugary soft drinks intake to a quarter of that observed at baseline (mean intake: 198 ml/d at baseline), with improvements in physical activity levels and screen time <2 h/d, were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested that POZ is a promising intervention programme, at municipality level, to tackle childhood overweight and obesity.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Physical exercise, Overweight, Dieting, Childhood obesity, Municipality, Sedentary lifestyle


OBJECTIVE: Lycopene is a potent antioxidant, and it has been suggested that intake of tomatoes and tomato products containing lycopene is associated with a decreased risk of various chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of dietary lycopene intake in the Belgian population and to determine the most important contributors to lycopene intake. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: National food consumption data from the Belgian Food Consumption Survey (BFCS) 2004 were used for the intake assessment. Determination of the lycopene content in foods was performed with HPLC-UV. Individual food consumption data were multiplied by the actual mean concentrations of lycopene per food. SUBJECTS: Individuals (n 3083) aged 15 years and older participated in the study and provided two 24 h recalls. RESULTS: The mean lycopene intake among Belgian adults was 4·1 (sd 2·3) mg/d or 0·059 (sd 0·033) mg/kg body weight per d. Lycopene intake among men (4·6 (sd 2·6) mg/d) was higher than among women (3·6 (sd 2·1) mg/d), and was higher in the younger compared with the older age groups. Cis-lycopene intake represented about one-third of the total lycopene intake. Tomatoes and tomato products (43 %) and sauces and ready-to-eat meals containing tomato sauces (41 %) were the main contributors to lycopene intake in Belgium. CONCLUSIONS: The lycopene intake of the Belgian adult population was comparable to intakes reported in neighbouring countries and was below the acceptable daily intake.

Concepts: Nutrition, Food, Tomato, Belgium, Lycopene, Ketchup, Salsa, Tomato sauce


OBJECTIVE: The present study describes the consumption patterns of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community and examines its associations with physical activity, sedentary behaviours and BMI. DESIGN: A two-stage cross-sectional design was used. In Stage 1 (n 42), 24 h recalls enabled the identification of sweetened products. In Stage 2 (n 192), an FFQ was administered to measure the daily consumption of these products and to collect sociodemographic and behavioural data. Sweetened products were defined as processed culinary ingredients and ultra-processed products for which total sugar content exceeded 20 % of total energy. SETTING: Three Catholic Middle Eastern churches located in Montreal, Canada. SUBJECTS: Normoglycaemic men and women (18-60 years old). RESULTS: Twenty-six sweetened products represented an average consumption of 75·4 g total sugars/d or 15·1 % of daily energy intake (n 190, 56 % women). Soft drinks, juices, sweetened coffee, chocolate, cookies, cakes and muffins were the main sources of consumption and mostly consumed between meals. Age (exp (β) = 0·99; P < 0·01), physical activity (exp (β) = 1·08; P < 0·01) and recreational computer use (exp (β) = 1·17; P < 0·01) were independently associated with sweetened product consumption. The association between sweetened product consumption and physical activity was U-shaped. BMI was not significantly associated with sweetened product consumption but all participants regardless of BMI were above the WHO recommendation for free sugars. CONCLUSIONS: Being physically active and spending less time using a computer may favour a reduced consumption of sweetened products. Very active individuals may, however, overconsume such products.

Concepts: Energy, Physics, Obesity, Muscle, Overweight, Coffee, Sugar, Christianity


OBJECTIVE: Trinidad and Tobago has experienced an epidemiological transition over recent decades characterised by reduced rates of communicable diseases but rapidly increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes in energy and nutrient supply that have taken place in Trinidad and Tobago between 1961 and 2007. DESIGN: Food balance sheets for each year between 1961 and 2007 were downloaded from the FAOSTAT database and daily per capita supply for seventeen food commodity groupings was calculated. After appropriate coding, energy and nutrient supply were determined using dietary analysis software. SETTING: FAO food balance sheets for Trinidad and Tobago from 1961 to 2007. SUBJECTS: None. RESULTS: The food supply in 2007 provided an extra 1561 kJ (373 kcal)/capita per d than it did in 1961. Energy from carbohydrate as a percentage of total energy fell from 62 % in 1961 to 57 % in 2007, whereas energy from fat as a percentage of total energy increased from 26 % to over 30 % and now lies at the upper end of WHO recommendations. Sugars increased from 20 % to over 26 % of total energy and are well above WHO recommendations. When expressed on a nutrient density basis, supplies of vitamin A, folate and Ca are lower than WHO recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional imbalances in the Trinidadian food supply need to be addressed to combat the rise in nutrition-related chronic disease that is projected to cause increased disability and premature death in the country in the coming years.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Nutrition, Asthma, Vitamin, Chronic, Carbohydrate, Trinidad and Tobago


The present study investigated the current status of fruit and vegetable intake among seniors and assessed the relationship between personal background factors, social psychological factors and environmental factors of the study participants and their fruit and vegetable consumption behaviour.

Concepts: Present, Time, Psychology, Future, Sociology, Behavior, Behavioural sciences