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Journal: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, medizinische Psychologie

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The aim was to translate the Patient-Provider Orientation Scale (PPOS) into German and to assess the degree of medical students' patient-centeredness in 2 student samples in Freiburg (GER) and in Basel (CH). The German translation of PPOS was administered to 259 medical students in Freiburg and to 137 medical students in Basel. Construct validity was tested using factor analysis. Based on factor analysis and tests of internal consistency, a shortened version with 6 items for each of the 2 subscales “sharing” and “caring” was generated (PPOS-D12). PPOS D12 is a reliable instrument to assess patient-centeredness among medical students in German-speaking countries.

Concepts: Psychometrics, Language, Reliability, Italian language, Germany, Switzerland, German language, Alsace

23

Anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder are the main psychopathological symptoms shown by refugees. We conducted a systematic review. First, we identified key-words for a systematic search in PUBMED. We included original articles since 2009 with 1) a non-clinical sample of refugees, 2) refugees living at maximum 5 years in the host country, 4) with the outcomes anxiety, depression, and PTSD and 5) a sample with >100 participants. Then we read titles, abstracts and fulltexts. We identified 1 877 studies. Based on this screening procedure, we included in our review 15 studies. 52% of the refugees are from Africa (Somalia, Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra-Leon and Togo), 33% from Asia (Syria, Bhutan, Vietnam, Cambodia, Iraq) and 16% are from more than one continent. In those studies n=6 769 refugees participated in the studies. The number of participants varied from n=117 to n=1,422 (Median: n=366 refugees). Prevalence rates for PTBS varied from 5-71% (mean prevalence rate: 32%) rates for depression varied from 11-54% (mean prevalence rate: 35%). Sensitivity analyses suggest that refugees, which come from countries with intense human rights violations according to the Political Terror Scale, have an increased rate of psychopathological symptoms. Heterogeneity of prevalence rate is related both 1) to methodological and 2) to difference in the refugee populations according to the human rights violations in the countries of origin of refugees. It is necessary to include further databases in a systematic review. There is an urgent need for representative studies on refugees needs for psychosocial and medical care, especially for those refugees coming from countries with intense human rights violations. Psychosocial and medical services for these refugees are urgently needed to enhance and enable a perspective in the host country Germany.

Concepts: Human rights, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Abnormal psychology, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Prevalence, United Nations, Vietnam War

0

Screening for personality dysfunction is regarded as increasingly important for treatment planning in clinical settings as this allows to determine specific clinical pathways in an early stage. Recently, the 12-item OPD Structure Questionnaire (OPD-SQS) was developed for this purpose and initial results of the factor structure and validity have been published. This study aimed to investigate and validate the OPD-SQS in further patient samples beyond the team of developers and to provide reference values.

Concepts: Patient, Evaluation methods, Sociology, Psychometrics, Construct validity

0

In the field of gastroenterology and hepatology, associations and interactions with comorbid mental disorders are often described, but there is currently a lack of methodologically high-quality studies on prevalence and the need for care. The aim of the study was to take account of this shortcoming.

Concepts: Medicine, Mental disorder, Need

0

Organ transplantation is the best and to some extent only option for many patients with chronic organ failure. Usually after successful transplantation patients experience a significant improvement of their condition. Nevertheless, they are not cured but still chronically ill. Living with an organ transplant requires consequent immunosuppression intake, regular physician visits and following the recommendations regarding infection prevention. These factors are important to secure a long transplant survival. Especially non-adherence to immunosuppressants is known as a risk factor for transplant rejection. There are several reasons for non-adherent behavior. However identifying the individual motivations is crucial for addressing them correctly. The aim of this article is to give an overview of factors influencing adherence, to introduce options to assess adherence and to present ways to improve adherence. Randomized-controlled intervention studies are presented and on that basis recommendations for clinical practice are derived.

Concepts: Immune system, Medicine, Organ transplant

0

In the past years a considerable amount of primary and secondary prevention programs for eating disorders was developed in German speaking countries. However, up to now there has been no systematic review of contents and evaluation studies. The main objective of the present systematic review is to identify and outline German prevention programs for eating disorders. This should facilitate the selection of appropriate and effective interventions for medical experts, other professionals and teachers. A systematic literature research was conducted and 22 German-language primary and secondary prevention programs were identified. Half of them were evaluated. The programs were conducted either in school, on the internet or in a group setting. The findings show that throughout almost all programs a reduction in weight and shape concerns and drive for thinness as well as an increase of (body) self-esteem could be observed in either the total sample or the high-risk sample. However, programs were inconsistently effective in reducing disordered eating behavior in the target population. All studies were effective in reducing at least one risk factor. Overall, higher effect sizes were found for secondary prevention programs than for primary prevention programs. Lastly, limitations of the studies and suggestions for future prevention efforts are discussed.

Concepts: Present, Public health, Nutrition, Prevention, Meta-analysis, German language, Gymnasium, Preventive medicine

0

Psychosocial care for cancer patients has gained importance in recent years and psycho-oncological counselling centers (POCC’s) offer a wide range of services in this area. We investigated the scope and content of a POCC at a university medical center.

Concepts: Oncology, Physician

0

After the genocide of Shingal in August 2014 in Northern Iraq, the humanitarian admissions program Sonderkontingent Baden-Württemberg “Schutzbedürftiger Frauen und Kinder aus dem Nordirak” was implemented. 1100 persons, most of them Yazidis, were hosted by different municipalities in Germany. The target group is a particularly vulnerable group of persons with a high risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder. We present the concept of care in Freiburg for 205 Yazidi women and children in Freiburg. A stepped-care approach was developed for the psychological care to introduce the Yazidi people to the daily life and to the health care system in Germany. An outreach of psychological services and an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary cooperation of all services involved were crucial.

Concepts: Health care, Germany, Iraq, Iraqi Kurdistan, Kurdish language, Ethnic cleansing, Mosul, Yazidi

0

The aim was to develop further a screening instrument for complex posttraumatic stress disorder (cPTSD). The screening for cPTSD (SkPTBS) tests a) potential traumatic experiences, b) influential features and risk factors, and c) symptoms of cPTSD. The SkPTBS by Dorr et al. (2016) was revised according to the current ICD-11 criteria set proposal for cPTSD and is explored in its revised edition.

Concepts: Psychological trauma, Complex post-traumatic stress disorder, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Stress

0

Numerous studies prove the efficacy of internet-based self-help programs, but integration into the health-care system was rarely investigated. The present study addresses the implementation of an internet-based self-help program into routine care of patients with depressive symptoms waiting for psychotherapy at the university outpatient center.

Concepts: Present, Health care, Computer program, Cultural studies, Program, The Program, Program management