SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Psychiatry investigation

131

Enhanced technology in computer and internet has driven scale and quality of data to be improved in various areas including healthcare sectors. Machine Learning (ML) has played a pivotal role in efficiently analyzing those big data, but a general misunderstanding of ML algorithms still exists in applying them (e.g., ML techniques can settle a problem of small sample size, or deep learning is the ML algorithm). This paper reviewed the research of diagnosing mental illness using ML algorithm and suggests how ML techniques can be employed and worked in practice.

125

We aimed to explore the differential impact of cigarette smoking on fracture risks in SCD and dementia.

24

Throughout the past several years, there have been a number of entertainment celebrity suicides in South Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the clustering of suicides following celebrities' suicides in South Korea from 2005 to 2008, particularly according to certain characteristics.

Concepts: Psychiatry, Hangul

22

This study had two main objectives: to compare current suicide rates in OECD countries among 10-19-year-olds and to identify patterns of suicide rates based on age, gender and time. Furthermore we investigated the main dimensions that contributed to the variation in child and adolescent suicide rates across countries.

Concepts: Sociology, Developmental psychology, Suicide, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

22

Bipolar disorder is a severe and enduring psychiatric condition which in many cases starts during early adulthood and follows a relapsing and remitting course throughout life. In many patients the disease follows a progressive path with brief periods of inter-episode recovery, sub-threshold symptoms, treatment resistance and increasing functional impairment in the biopsychosocial domains. Knowledge about the neurobiology of bipolar disorder is increasing steadily and evidence from several lines of research implicates immuno-inflammatory mechanisms in the brain and periphery in the etiopathogenesis of this illness and its comorbidities. The main findings are an increase in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines during acute episodes with a decrease in neurotrophic support. Related to these factors are glial cell dysfunction, neuro-endocrine abnormalities and neurotransmitter aberrations which together cause plastic changes in the mood regulating areas of the brain and neuroprogression of the bipolar diathesis. Research in the above mentioned areas is providing an opportunity to discover novel biomarkers for the disease and the field is reaching a point where major breakthroughs can be expected in the not too distant future. It is hoped that with new discoveries fresh avenues will be found to better treat an otherwise recalcitrant disease.

Concepts: Medicine, Neuron, Mental disorder, Bipolar disorder, Psychiatry, Prefrontal cortex, Mood, Biopsychosocial model

15

A considerable proportion of suicide attempts are the result of sudden desires. Understanding such impulsive suicide attempts is necessary for effective interventions. We evaluated the impulsivity of suicide attempters treated in emergency rooms. The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of impulsive suicide attempts by comparing these individuals to those who attempted to commit suicide in a non-impulsive manner.

Concepts: Bipolar disorder, Suicide, The Complete Manual of Suicide, Parasuicide

12

Physical or mental imbalance caused by harmful stimuli can induce stress to maintain homeostasis. During chronic stress, the sympathetic nervous system is hyperactivated, causing physical, psychological, and behavioral abnormalities. At present, there is no accepted standard for stress evaluation. This review aimed to survey studies providing a rationale for selecting heart rate variability (HRV) as a psychological stress indicator.

Concepts: Anxiety, Nervous system, Psychology, Cardiology, Neuroscience, Sympathetic nervous system, Stress, Parasympathetic nervous system

4

The present study compared cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) using multidimensional measurements with the aim of better understanding characteristics and exploring markers of two similar fatigue syndromes.

3

Light pollution has become a social and health issue. We performed an experimental study to investigate impact of dim light at night (dLAN) on sleep in female subjects, with measurement of salivary melatonin.

Concepts: Human, Male, Female, Sleep, Circadian rhythm, Light pollution, Light therapy, Melatonin

3

Paruresis is a special type of non-generalized social phobia that involves fear and avoidance of urination in public restrooms. We administered eight 60-minute sessions of desensitization of triggers and urge reduction (DeTUR), an addiction protocol of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, to a 29-year old man with paruresis of 10 year duration. Because phobic avoidance is the hallmark of any anxiety disorder, we applied DeTUR targeting the urge to avoid each anxiety-provoking situation in succession. After treatment, the participant no longer met the requirements for a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder, and the self-reported symptoms of social anxiety had decreased to non-clinical levels; furthermore, these treatment gains were maintained at the one-year follow-up. Further clinical studies are needed to generalize this finding.

Concepts: Anxiety disorder, Panic disorder, Fear, Social anxiety, Anxiety disorders, Social anxiety disorder, Panic attack, Phobia