SciCombinator

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Journal: Poultry science

109

Two broiler trials were designed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in wheat and 1) its nutritional value for broilers and 2) the efficacy of exogenous enzymes. In a balance trial, diets were formulated with 3 wheat cultivars (Rustic and Viscount-medium NSP, Centenaire-high NSP) and were tested with or without the addition of an exogenous enzyme mixture. The diets were fed to 144 male Ross 308 broiler chickens housed in digestibility cages. Total tract nutrient digestibilities and AMEn were measured from 18 to 22 d of age. In a performance trial, diets were formulated with wheat (medium NSP diet) or with wheat mixed with rye and barley (high NSP diet) and were tested with or without the addition of an exogenous enzyme mixture. The diets were fed to 960 male Ross 308 broilers housed in pens and broiler performance during starter, grower and finisher periods was measured.In the balance trial, wheat cultivar did not affect nutrient digestibility or AMEn. Enzyme addition caused a significant increase in nutrient digestibilities and AMEn for the diet formulated with the high NSP wheat Centenaire only. In the performance trial, feeding the high NSP diet resulted in a higher feed conversion ratio and lower final body weight compared to the medium NSP diet. The largest improvements by enzyme addition were observed in the high NSP diet.In conclusion, the study was not able to show a consistent relationship between the NSP concentration of wheat and its nutritional value, but did demonstrate that the effect of an enzyme mixture on nutrient digestibility or broiler performance depends upon the NSP concentration in the diet.

Concepts: Protein, Metabolism, Nutrition, Starch, Chicken, Feed conversion ratio, Poultry farming, Broiler

28

The present study was conducted to select appropriate microbial strains for the development of fermented Alisma canaliculatum A. Br. et Bouche (FAC) feed additive and to examine their effects on broilers. In experiment 1, 16 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) were evaluated. The strains were tested for their acid, bile, and heat tolerance levels. Among them, L. acidophilus KCTC 3111, E. faecium KCTC 2022, B. subtilis KCTC 3239, and S. cerevisiae KCTC 7928 were selected to produce FAC. For experiment 2, 140 Ross broiler chicks were allocated to four 5-wk-long dietary groups: NC (basal diet), PC (basal diet with 0.005% oxytetracycline), AC (basal diet with 0.5% A. canaliculatum rhizome powder), and FAC (basal diet with 0.5% FAC). Final BW and total BW gain were increased (P < 0.05) upon the addition of FAC, whereas feed conversion ratio improved (P < 0.05) in the supplemented groups compared with the NC group. Crude protein content increased and crude fat decreased (P < 0.05) in the breast meat of the FAC group compared with the AC and PC groups, respectively. Proventriculus and kidney relative weights of the FAC group differed (P < 0.05) from the AC group but not from the PC group. Lower (P < 0.05) thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of thigh meat was observed in the FAC group compared with the other groups. The FAC diet increased (P < 0.05) α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in meat. Alteration of these fatty acids led to increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid /saturated fatty acid, n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, and decreased n-6/n-3 ratio in breast or thigh meat (P < 0.05). It is concluded that FAC confers high tolerance to acid, bile and heat; and beneficially affects growth, meat composition, oxidative stability, and fatty acid composition. The FAC may be a functional feed additive in broilers.

Concepts: Nutrition, Fatty acid, Fatty acids, Microbiology, Bacillus, Probiotic, Omega-6 fatty acid, Linoleic acid

28

Evaluation of poultry protein isolate (PPI) as a food ingredient was carried out by substituting nonmeat ingredients such as soy protein isolate (SPI) or meat protein in turkey bologna. Two concentrations (1.5 and 2% dry weight basis) of PPI prepared from mechanically separated turkey meat were used in this study. Two control samples were prepared with 11 and 13% meat protein, respectively. Physicochemical characteristics of turkey bologna containing PPI were compared with those of control and SPI-containing samples. Batter strength was higher for 2% PPI and 13% meat protein control samples (control-2) compared with all other treatments. Cooking yield of the 11% meat protein control was significantly (P < 0.05) less compared with other treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the expressible moisture or purge loss among all the treatments. Control-2 showed lower L* values and was more reddish during refrigerated storage. Addition of protein isolates caused a significant increase (b* value varied between 11.48 and 12.52) in yellowness of products. Turkey bologna with added protein isolates showed significantly lower lipid oxidation as indicated by induced TBA reactive substance analysis. Results from this study suggest that SPI or meat protein could be replaced by PPI without negatively affecting product characteristics as evident from cooking yield and purge loss values.

Concepts: Nutrition, Electrochemistry, Soybean, Meat, Soy milk, Soy protein, Domestic turkey, Poultry

28

The objective of this study was to determine standardized AA digestibility of corn, corn gluten meal, and 3 distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal AA broiler chicken assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler chicken assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were ad libitum fed a semi-purified diet containing the feed samples as the sole source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broiler chickens were precision-fed 10 g of feed and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. For corn, the PFC yielded significantly higher digestibilities than the SIAAD and PFR for several AA. For corn gluten meal, the PFR yielded significantly higher values than the PFC for the majority of the AA, with the SIAAD yielding intermediate values. When 3 DDGS samples were evaluated, the PFR produced higher digestibilities than the PFC for all 3 DDGS samples for most of the AA. When comparing the PFR and the SIAAD, the PFR yielded higher values than the SIAAD for one DDGS, whereas there was generally no significant difference between these 2 methods for the other 2 DDGS samples. The results of this study indicate there were differences among standardized AA digestibility values for the PFR, SIAAD, and PFC in some instances. The differences among methods were not consistent; however, the PFR yielded higher digestibility values than the PFC for 4 of the 5 ingredient samples.

Concepts: Chicken, Ethanol fuel, Broiler, Rooster

28

In this study we isolated and characterized Staphylococcus xylosus, a coagulase-negative staphylococcal species considered as commensal and one of the prevalent staphylococcal species found in poultry bioaerosol. Isolates were obtained using air samplers and selective phenylethyl alcohol agar for gram-positive bacteria during 35-d periods at different times of the day. A total of 200 colonies were recovered and after basic biochemical tests were performed, presumptive staphylococci were subsequently identified by API Staph strips. A total of 153 (76.5%) staphylococci were found, among which 84 were S. xylosus (46 and 38 isolated inside and outside, respectively). Biofilm formation was observed in 86.9% of S. xylosus isolates, whereas 79.8% of them showed hemolytic activity. There was a strong correlation (92.5%) between biofilm formation and hemolytic activity. All 84 S. xylosus isolates were susceptible to amikacin, ampicillin/sulbactam, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, kanamycin, linezolid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Resistance to nalidixic acid (86.9%), novobiocin (85.7%), penicillin (70.2%), lincomycin (46.4%), oxacillin (42.9%), ampicillin (27.4%), tetracycline (21.4%), erythromycin (11.9%), bacitracin (10.7%), and streptomycin (2.4%) was observed among the isolates. Resistance to tetracycline, lincomycin, erythromycin, and β-lactam antibiotics was occasionally linked to the tetK, linA, ermB, and blaZ genes, respectively. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA results showed similarity of 15 to 99% between isolates collected outside and inside the barn, indicating genetic diversity of these isolates. Our study indicates that characterization of poultry bioaerosol coagulase-negative staphylococcal species such as S. xylosus is necessary for assessing their safety status for both poultry and humans.

Concepts: Bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Antibiotic resistance, Staphylococcus, Gram positive bacteria, Coagulase, Staphylococcaceae, Staphylococcus xylosus

28

Here, we investigated adhesion and invasion of Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) to primary duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. The ability of RA to adhere to, and more importantly, to invade DEF cells was demonstrated by using a gentamicin invasion assay and was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Adhesion of RA could be found by TEM after 1 h of inoculation. Both apoptosis and necrocytosis of DEF were indicated by TEM after 10 h of incubation, which suggested a complex mechanism of DEF cell death induced by RA. Our results showed that internalized RA had the ability to leave the DEF cells. Inhibition studies indicated that RA proteins play a role in adhesion. Moreover, invasion of RA to DEF cells was shown to require rearrangement of actin microfilaments and microtubular cytoskeletal elements. Because the adhesion and invasion ability of RA to DEF cells could be demonstrated in vitro, similar processes might occur in vivo, where DEF cells play a crucial role in the diffusion of RA in ducks.

Concepts: Protein, Apoptosis, In vivo, In vitro, Cytoskeleton, Transmission electron microscopy, Gentamicin protection assay, Gentamicin

27

The effects of the in ovo injection of commercial diluent containing various levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] on hatchability and hatching chick quality variables in Ross × Ross 708 broilers were examined in 2 trials. All treatment groups, each containing 21 and 40 eggs in trials 1 and 2, respectively, were randomly represented on each of 10 replicate tray levels of a single-stage incubator. On 18 d of incubation (doi), eggs were subjected to 1 of 6 treatments using a commercial multi-egg injector. Treatments included noninjected and diluent-injected controls, along with those that received diluent containing 0.15, 0.30, 0.60, or 1.20 µg of 25(OH)D3 in trial 1 and 0.20, 0.60, 1.80, or 5.4 µg of 25(OH)D3 in trial 2. Hatchability of injected eggs (HI) was recorded on 20.5, 21.0, and 21.5 doi, and embryonic mortalities through 21.5 doi were determined. On 21.0 doi in each trial, the BW, body length, and weights and moisture concentrations of the livers and yolk sacs of male and female chicks in each replicate group were determined. In a preliminary trial, the in ovo injection of 0.60 µg of 25(OH)D3 on 18 doi significantly elevated its serum level concentrations in embryos on 19.25 doi. In both trials, the HI of noninjected controls through 21.0 doi was higher than that of diluent-injected controls. In trial 1, the HI of eggs on 21.0 doi after being injected with 0.30, 0.60, or 1.20 µg of 25(OH)D3 was higher compared with that of diluent-injected controls, and in trial 2, the HI of eggs on 21.0 and 21.5 doi after being injected with 0.60 µg of 25(OH)D3 was higher compared with that of diluent-injected controls. In conclusion, the in ovo injection of 0.60 µg of 25(OH)D3 may be used to alleviate depressions in HI in Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs that can occur in response to the in ovo injection of commercial diluent.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Chicken, The Trial, Broiler, Egg yolk, Yolk sac, Incubation

26

Mycoplasma synoviae infection of hens has been associated with problems of eggshell quality called eggshell apex abnormalities (EAA). Little is known about the quality of EAA eggs from a commercial point of view, especially during their storage. The study aimed to examine the differences between EAA and normal eggs during storage under controlled conditions in 2 seasons, summer and winter, by comparing internal and external quality parameters. In a conventional egg production farm with white laying hens of varying ages in the city of Bastos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, 232 eggs were used in the summer season and 400 eggs in the winter season. Half of the eggs had EAA, and the other half were considered normal eggs for each season. The eggs were analyzed at 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d after being laid and stored from 24.6 to 25.8°C in summer and from 24 to 25°C in winter. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in the average egg weight between EAA and normal eggs at any studied time point, but in both seasons, the weight loss in EAA eggs was higher than in normal eggs. The losses in Haugh unit scores from the first to the last measurements were approximately 40% regardless of egg type or season of production. In comparing eggshell thickness, only the apices of the EAA eggs were thinner (P < 0.0001) than normal eggs in the summer, but in the winter, the EAA egg apices (P < 0.0001) and sides (P = 0.03) were both thinner. The presence of EAA did not affect the eggshell weight (P > 0.05) or eggshell percentage (P > 0.05). The eggshell strength of the EAA eggs was lower (P < 0.0001) than normal eggs in both the summer (16.57%) and winter (19.86%). The presence of EAA did not affect the internal quality of the egg, but was related to a greater loss of external quality and weight during storage.

Concepts: Chicken

26

The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. isolated from duck and goose intestinal contents. A total of 471 samples, including 291 duck and 180 goose intestinal contents, were purchased from wet markets between November 2008 and July 2010. Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. were isolated from 58 (12.3%), 107 (22.7%), and 80 (17%) of the samples, respectively. It was concluded that Listeria ivanovii, Salmonella Thompson, and Yersinia enterocolitica were the predominant serovars among Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp., respectively. Moreover, resistance to tetracycline was common in Listeria (48.3%) and Salmonella spp. (63.6%), whereas 51.3% of the Yersinia spp. isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Therefore, continued surveillance of the prevalence of the pathogens and also of emerging antibiotic resistance is needed to render possible the recognition of foods that may represent risks and also ensure the effective treatment of listeriosis, salmonellosis, and yersiniosis.

Concepts: Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Listeria, Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia, Goose, Duck, Anatidae

25

To adapt commercial poultry production to a new scenario of energy savings and to develop specific practices for quail production aimed at reducing costs while maintaining or improving productivity, four experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, birds were allocated to four treatments (photoperiod duration): T1: 14L:10D; T2: 15L:9D; T3: 16L:8D; and T4: 17L:7D. In the second experiment, birds were subjected to four levels of brightness: T1: 5 lux; T2: 10 lux; T3: 15 lux; and T4: 22 lux (control). In the third experiment, four types of lamps were evaluated: T1: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 6,500K); T2: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 2,700K); T3: incandescent lamp; and T4: yellow LED. In the last experiment, four lighting programs were compared: T1: continuous program (control), in which there was a single photoperiod of 15 h; the other treatments consisted of intermittent lighting programs, as follows: T2: 1 h of light provided 1 h after dusk; T3: 1 h of light provided 2 h before dawn; T4: half an hour of light provided 1 h after dusk and half an hour of light provided 1.5 h before dawn. In each experiment, 1,296 Japanese quail were evaluated for four 28-d cycles, totaling 112 experimental days. A completely randomized experimental design of 4 treatments with 12 replicates of 27 birds each was applied in all trials. Performance and egg quality were evaluated in each experiment. Higher egg production and adequate egg quality, as well as energy savings, can be obtained with Japanese quail using compact fluorescent lamps or LEDs and a photoperiod of 15 h/d supplied using an intermittent lighting program, with 1 h of artificial light 2 h before dawn at a brightness of 5 lux.

Concepts: Light, Fluorescent lamp, Lighting, Incandescent light bulb, Compact fluorescent lamp, Energy conservation, Light fixture, Electrical ballast