SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Pituitary

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Consensus guidelines recommend dopamine agonists (DAs) as the mainstay treatment for prolactinomas. In most patients, DAs achieve tumor shrinkage and normoprolactinemia at well tolerated doses. However, primary or, less often, secondary resistance to DAs may be also encountered representing challenging clinical scenarios. This is particularly true for aggressive prolactinomas in which surgery and radiotherapy may not achieve tumor control. In these cases, alternative medical treatments have been considered but data on their efficacy should be interpreted within the constraints of publication bias and of lack of relevant clinical trials. The limited reports on somatostatin analogues have shown conflicting results, but cases with optimal outcomes have been documented. Data on estrogen modulators and metformin are scarce and their usefulness remains to be evaluated. In many aggressive lactotroph tumors, temozolomide has demonstrated optimal outcomes, whereas for other cytotoxic agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and for inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), higher quality evidence is needed. Finally, promising preliminary results from in vitro and animal reports need to be further assessed and, if appropriate, translated in human studies.

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There is a high incidence of abnormal sphenoid sinus changes in patients with pituitary apoplexy (PA). Their pathophysiology is currently unexplored and may reflect an inflammatory or infective process. In this preliminary study, we characterised the microbiota of sphenoid sinus mucosa in patients with PA and compared findings to a control group of surgically treated non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs).

Concepts: Controlling for a variable, Scientific control, Pituitary adenoma, Apoplexy

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Guidelines and consensus statements ensure that physicians managing acromegaly patients have access to current information on evidence-based treatments to optimize outcomes. Given significant novel recent advances in understanding acromegaly natural history and individualized therapies, the Pituitary Society invited acromegaly experts to critically review the current literature in the context of Endocrine Society guidelines and Acromegaly Consensus Group statements. This update focuses on how recent key advances affect treatment decision-making and outcomes, and also highlights the likely role of recently FDA-approved therapies as well as novel combination therapies within the treatment armamentarium.

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The ACROPRAXIS program aims to describe the management of acromegaly in Spain and provide guidance.

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The SAGIT® instrument, designed to assist clinicians to stage acromegaly, assess treatment response and adapt patient management, was well received by endocrinologists in a pilot study. We report an interim analysis of baseline data from the validation phase.

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Pituitary tumors may have a considerable impact on patients' functional status, including paid employment, yet research in this area is sparse.

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MCM7 (minichromosome maintenance complex component 7), a DNA replication licensing factor, is a host gene for the oncogenic miR-106b~25 cluster. It has been recently revealed as a relevant prognostic biomarker in a variety of cancers, including pituitary adenomas. The purpose of this study was to assess whether miR-106b~25 and MCM7 levels correlate with tumor invasiveness in a cohort of ACTH-immunopositive adenomas.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Gene, Gene expression, Cell, Cancer, Organism, DNA replication

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Cushing’s disease is a rare disorder characterized by overproduction of ACTH from a pituitary adenoma leading to hypercortisolemia that in turn leads to increased morbidity and mortality.

Concepts: Hypertension, Pituitary adenoma, Corticosteroid, Glucocorticoid, Cortisol, Cushing's syndrome, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Zona fasciculata

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In March 2011, the Acromegaly Consensus Group met to revise and update the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly complications. The meeting was sponsored by the Pituitary Society and the European Neuroendocrinology Association and included experts skilled in the management of acromegaly. Complications considered included cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic, sleep apnea, bone diseases, and mortality. Outcomes in selected, related clinical conditions were also considered, and included pregnancy, familial acromegaly and invasive macroadenomas. The need for a new disease staging model was considered, and design of such a tool was proposed.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Pituitary gland, Cancer, Infectious disease, Death, Neuroendocrinology, Sleep apnea, Endocrine system

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To examine the clinical presentation and longitudinal outcome of Pituitary Apoplexy (PA) after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) in a series of patients and compare to prior reports.