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Journal: Physical therapy in sport : official journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine

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To evaluate if a single blood flow restriction (BFR)-exercise bout would induce hypoalgaesia in patients with anterior knee pain (AKP) and allow painless application of therapeutic exercise.

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The objectives of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of respiratory muscle training (RMT) on respiratory muscle endurance (RME) and to determine the RME test that demonstrates the most consistent changes after RMT. Electronic searches were conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE, COCHRANE CENTRAL, CINHAL and SPORTDiscus. The PEDro scale was used for quality assessment and meta-analysis were performed to compare effect sizes of different RME tests. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Isocapnic hyperpnea training was performed in 40% of the studies. Meta-analysis showed that RMT improves RME in athletes (P = 0.0007) and non-athletes (P = 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed differences among tests; maximal sustainable ventilatory capacity (MSVC) and maximal sustainable threshold loading tests demonstrated significant improvement after RMT (P = 0.007; P = 0.003 respectively) compared to the maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) (P = 0.11) in athletes whereas significant improvement after RMT was only shown by MSVC in non-athletes. The effect size of MSVC was greater compared to MVV in studies that performed both tests. The meta-analysis results provide evidence that RMT improves RME in athletes and non-athletes and MSVC test that examine endurance over several minutes are more sensitive to improvement after RMT.

Concepts: Medical statistics, Statistical significance, Effect size, Meta-analysis, Statistical power, Gene V. Glass

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This masterclass takes a multidimensional approach to movement assessment in clinical practice. It seeks to provide innovative views on both emerging and more established methods of assessing movement within the world of movement health, injury prevention and rehabilitation. A historical perspective of the value and complexity of human movement, the role of a physical therapist in function of movement health evaluation across the entire lifespan and a critical appraisal of the current evidence-based approach to identify individual relevant movement patterns is presented. To assist a physical therapist in their role as a movement system specialist, a clinical-oriented overview of current movement-based approaches is proposed within this multidimensional perspective to facilitate the translation of science into practice and vice versa. A Movement Evaluation Model is presented and focuses on the measurable movement outcome of resultants on numerous interactions of individual, environmental and task constraints. The model blends the analysis of preferred movement strategies with a battery of cognitive movement control tests to assist clinical judgement as to how to optimize movement health across an individual lifespan.

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Running-related injuries are common and are associated with a high rate of reoccurrence. Biomechanics and errors in applied training loads are often cited as causes of running-related injuries. Clinicians and runners are beginning to utilize wearable technologies to quantify biomechanics and training loads with the hope of reducing the incidence of running-related injuries. Wearable devices can objectively assess biomechanics and training loads in runners, yet guidelines for their use by clinicians and runners are not currently available. This article outlines several applications for the use of wearable devices in the prevention and rehabilitation of running-related injuries. Applications for monitoring of training loads, running biomechanics, running epidemiology, return to running programs and gait retraining are discussed. Best-practices for choosing and use of wearables are described to provide guidelines for clinicians and runners. Finally, future applications are outlined for this rapidly developing field.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Training, Wearable computer

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To examine the effect of kinesiology tape (KT) on shoulder strength, proprioception, and scapular kinematics in healthy and Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SAIS) subjects.

Concepts: Tape

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The aim was to critically evaluate the literature investigating strength training interventions in the treatment of plantar fasciitis and improving intrinsic foot musculature strength. A search of PubMed, CINHAL, Web of Science, SPORTSDiscus, EBSCO Academic Search Complete and PEDRO using the search terms plantar fasciitis, strength, strengthening, resistance training, intrinsic flexor foot, resistance training. Seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the modified Downs and Black checklist. All articles showed moderate to high quality, however external validity was low. A comparison of the interventions highlights significant differences in strength training approaches to treating plantar fasciitis and improving intrinsic strength. It was not possible to identify the extent to which strengthening interventions for intrinsic musculature may benefit symptomatic or at risk populations to plantar fasciitis. There is limited external validity that foot exercises, toe flexion against resistance and minimalist running shoes may contribute to improved intrinsic foot musculature function. Despite no plantar fascia thickness changes being observed through high-load plantar fascia resistance training there are indications that it may aid in a reduction of pain and improvements in function. Further research should use standardised outcome measures to assess intrinsic foot musculature strength and plantar fasciitis symptoms.

Concepts: Better, Improve, Muscle, Physical exercise, Exercise, Strength training, Isometric exercise, Plantar fasciitis

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The association between groin pain and range of motion is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to develop a test to measure sport specific range of motion (SSROM) of the lower limb, to evaluate its reliability and describe findings in non-injured (NI) and injured football players.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Measurement, Metrology, Psychometrics, The Association, Test method, Limb, Test

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Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is an overuse injury occurring among the physically active. Linked to increased strain on the medial tendons of the ankle, studies emphasize controlling medial foot loading in the management of this condition. Kinesio taping (KT) has gained popularity for treating musculoskeletal pathologies; however, its effect on MTSS remains uninvestigated. This study aimed to determine if healthy participants and patients with current or previous history of MTSS differ in the rate of loading, and if KT affects plantar pressures in these participants.