SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Pest management science

168

An evaluation was made of the effects of seven neurotoxic insecticides (esfenvalerate, indoxacarb, clothianidin, thiacloprid, azinphosmethyl, phosmet and imidacloprid), one insect growth regulator (novaluron) and two fungicides (myclobutanin and mancozeb), with water as the control, on the horizontal mobility of plum curculios exposed to dried pesticide residues. Mobility was recorded over a 2 h period using ethological tracking software. Mortality was recorded immediately after horizontal mobility experiments and 24 h later.

Concepts: Sulfur, Pesticide, Insecticide, Insecticides, Neonicotinoid, Imidacloprid, Cinnamaldehyde, Phosmet

28

The toxicity of red pine needle hydrodistillate (RPN-HD), 19 RPN-HD constituents and another 12 structurally related compounds and the control efficacy of four experimental spray formulations containing RPN-HD (0.5. 1, 2 and 3% sprays) to adult Dermatophagoides farinae were evaluated.

Concepts: House dust mite, Pine, Pinus classification, Pinus

28

Chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide belong to the new chemical class of diamide insecticides. High levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole rapidly evolved in field populations of Plutella xylostella from southern China. An investigation was made of diamide cross-resistance, as well as inheritance, stability and metabolic mechanisms of chlorantraniliprole resistance in field populations of P. xylostella from southern China.

Concepts: Biology, Insect, China, Object-oriented programming, Bacillus thuringiensis, Diamondback moth, Moths, The Diamondback

28

The complete genome of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, has been reported. This is the first sequenced genome of a highly polyphagous and resistant agricultural pest. The question as to what the genome offers the community working on spider mite control is addressed. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Concepts: Insect, Management, Tetranychus urticae, Spider mite, Tetranychus, Acariformes, Pest control, Agricultural pest mites

28

Feeding assays using adult rice water weevils and foliage of plants treated as seeds with chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam at different rates were conducted to evaluate the systemic adulticidal and feeding effects. Dose-mortality relationships were determined for thiamethoxam seed treatments by combining leaf area lost due to feeding and insecticide residues analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Changes in adulticidal activity of thiamethoxam were also investigated by contrasting adult mortalities at the 5-6-leaf and tillering stages of rice.

Concepts: Plant, Beetle, Fern, Plant morphology, Monocotyledon, Curculionidae, Gymnosperm, Weevil

28

Neonicotinoid insecticides are generally efficacious against many turfgrass pests, including several important phloem-feeding insects. However, inconsistencies in control of western chinch bugs, Blissus occiduus, have been documented in field efficacy studies. This research investigated the efficacy of three neonicotinoid insecticides (clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) against B. occiduus in buffalograss under field conditions and detected statistically significant differences in B. occiduus numbers among treatments. A subsequent study documented the relative quantity and degradation rate of these insecticides in buffalograss systemic leaf tissues, using HPLC.

Concepts: Statistical significance, Effectiveness, Efficacy, Insecticide, Insecticides, Neonicotinoid, Imidacloprid, Clothianidin

28

The recent development of very high resistance to phosphine in rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), seriously threatens stored-grain biosecurity. The aim was to characterise this resistance, to develop a rapid bioassay for its diagnosis to support pest management and to document the distribution of resistance in Australia in 2007-2011.

Concepts: Beetle, Distribution of wealth, Beetles, Coccinellidae, Polyphaga, Cucujoidea

28

The spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is the major strawberry pest in Brazil. The main strategies for its control comprise synthetic acaricides and predatory mites. The recent register of a commercial formula of azadirachtin (Azamax(®) 12 g L(-1) ) can be viable for control of T. urticae. In this work, the effects of azadirachtin on T. urticae and its compatibility with predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus macropilis in the strawberry crop were evaluated.

Concepts: Acari, Arachnid, Mite, Tetranychus urticae, Spider mite, Tetranychus, Acariformes, Acarina

28

Leprosis is one of the most serious citrus plant diseases. Leprosis-affected plants, especially sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck], which is the most widely cultivated citrus fruit worldwide, show reduced photosynthetic capacity and severe defoliation. The aim was to evaluate the relationship between the Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) vector mite and citrus leprosis disease in Pera sweet orange plants grafted on different rootstocks. Data were analysed using numerical classification and conventional statistical analysis (ANOVA).

Concepts: Citrus, Fruit, Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine, Lemon, Citron, Rutaceae

28

BACKGROUND: Pythium ultimum is a plant pathogen that causes significant yield losses on many economically important crops. Chemical treatment has been used for disease control. In searching for alternatives, venom piperidine and piperideine alkaloids from red imported fire ants were tested against P. ultimum in vitro, and piperideines were employed to control cucumber damping-off in the greenhouse as drench treatments. Results Piperidine and piperideine alkaloids of the red imported fire ant significantly inhibited mycelium growth of P. ultimum. Piperidine alkaloids were stable at both room and elevated temperatures. The inhibitory activity positively correlated with the concentrations of piperidine alkaloids in the medium, and the EC(50) = 17.0 µg ml(-1) . Germination of sporangia of P. ultimum was negatively correlated with the concentrations of piperidine alkaloids in the medium, and the EC(50) = 12.3 µg ml(-1) . The piperideine alkaloid drenching treatment significantly improved seedling emergence and seedling height of cucumber. CONCLUSION: This is the first report describing the use of venom alkaloids from the red imported fire ant to inhibit P. ultimum in the laboratory and the application of piperideine alkaloids to control damping-off disease caused by P. ultimum in the greenhouse. These findings may lead to the development of a new group of fungicides. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Concepts: Ant, Red imported fire ant, Fire ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, Solenopsis daguerrei, Ants, Plant pathogens and diseases, Solenopsin