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Journal: Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis


♦ Background: Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) exhibit soluble-fiber properties that beneficially affect bowel function and relieve constipation. The effects of FOS supplementation on constipation and biochemical parameters were examined in elderly continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. ♦ Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was performed in elderly CAPD patients (5 males and 4 females) with chronic constipation. All subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 20 g FOS or placebo daily for 30 days. After a 14-day washout period, the patients were switched to the other substance for 1 more month. Before and after each treatment period, frequency of defecation, characteristics of feces, and colonic transit were evaluated. Biochemical parameters were also assessed. ♦ Results: Fructo-oligosaccharides significantly increased the frequency of defecation (10.5 ± 2.0 vs 6.2 ± 1.4 times per week, p < 0.005) and changed the feces' appearance from type 1 (nut-like) to type 4 (sausage-like). The colonic transit determined by geometric center (GC) was augmented after FOS supplementation (3.9 ± 0.3 vs 3.2 ± 0.4, p < 0.05). Fructo-oligosaccharides had no effects on biochemical parameters. Fructo-oligosaccharides caused mild discomforts which were well tolerated after dose adjustment. ♦ Conclusions: Fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation is effective, well tolerated, and can be an alternative to other laxatives in CAPD patients with constipation. Further studies are needed to better assess the biochemical effects of FOS in the chronic kidney disease population.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Nephrology, Dialysis, Hemodialysis, Constipation, Peritoneum, Peritoneal dialysis, Defecation


♦ Background: For patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) serves as a possible renal replacement therapy. However, most PD patients, particularly those with ESRD and diabetes mellitus, reportedly discontinue PD early, resulting in shorter survival periods and poorer prognosis because of overhydration. Recently, the vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan was approved for volume control in patients with heart failure. The present study aimed to identify the effects of tolvaptan in diabetic PD patients. ♦ Methods: In this pilot study, the tolvaptan group (n = 12) were treated with 15 mg/day of tolvaptan 2 weeks after PD initiation and were prospectively analyzed for 1 year, and patients in the control group (n = 12) did not receive tolvaptan and were retrospectively analyzed for 1 year. In addition to the biochemical tests, echocardiograms, serum atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, peritoneal Kt/V, and creatinine clearance (CCr) were examined at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after PD initiation. ♦ Results: In the control group, the urine volume, renal Kt/V, and renal CCr levels consistently decreased; however, these parameters were stably maintained during the study period in the tolvaptan group. Atrial natriuretic peptide, CRP levels and the left ventricular mass index of the tolvaptan-treated group were significantly lower than those in the control group, whereas total protein and albumin levels were significantly higher at 6 and 12 months in the tolvaptan group. There were no obvious adverse effects. ♦ Conclusions: These data suggest that tolvaptan may preserve residual renal function and improve volume control in PD patients with diabetes mellitus.

Concepts: Renal failure, Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Dialysis, Diabetes mellitus, Urine, Atrial natriuretic peptide


♦ Background: There are no large studies that have examined ultra-short break-in period with a blind, bedside, midline approach to Tenckhoff catheter insertion.♦ Methods: Observational cohort study of 245 consecutive adult patients who underwent percutaneous catheter insertion for chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) at our center from January 2009 to December 2013. There were 132 (53.9%) diabetics and 113 (46.1%) non-diabetics in the cohort.♦ Results: The mean break-in period for the percutaneous group was 2.68 ± 2.6 days. There were significantly more males among the diabetics (103 [78%] vs 66 [58.4%], p = 0.001). Diabetics had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) (23.9 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)vs 22.2 ± 4 kg/m(2), p < 0.001) and lower serum albumin (33.1± 6.3 g/L vs 37 ± 6 g/L, p < 0.001) compared with non- diabetics. Poor catheter outflow was present in 6 (4.5%) diabetics and 16 (14.2%) non-diabetics (p= 0.009). Catheter migration was also significantly more common in the non-diabetic group (11 [9.7%] vs 2 [1.5%], p = 0.004). Primary catheter non-function was present in 17(15%) of the non-diabetics and in 7(5.3%) of the diabetics (p = 0.01). There were no mortality or major non-procedural complications during the catheter insertions. Among patients with 1 year of follow-up data, catheter survival (93/102 [91.2%] vs 71/82 [86.6%], p = 0.32) and technique survival (93/102 [91.2%] vs 70/82 [85.4%], p = 0.22) at 1 year was comparable between diabetics and non-diabetics, respectively.♦ Conclusions: Percutaneous catheter insertion by practicing nephrologists provides a short break-in period with very low mechanical and infective complications. Non-diabetic status emerged as a significant risk factor for primary catheter non-function presumed to be due to more patients with lower BMI and thus smaller abdominal cavities. This is the first report that systematically compares diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

Concepts: Cohort study, Nephrology, Dialysis, Obesity, Body mass index, Peritoneum, Insertion, Insertion sort


Peritonitis is a common and serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Although less than 5% of peritonitis episodes result in death, peritonitis is the direct or major contributing cause of death in around 16% of PD patients (1-6). In addition, severe or prolonged peritonitis leads to structural and functional alterations of the peritoneal membrane, eventually leading to membrane failure. Peritonitis is a major cause of PD technique failure and conversion to long-term hemodialysis (1,5,7,8). Recommendations under the auspices of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) were first published in 1983 and revised in 1993, 1996, 2000, 2005, and 2010 (9-14). The present recommendations are organized into 5 sections: 1. Peritonitis rate 2. Prevention of peritonitis 3. Initial presentation and management of peritonitis 4. Subsequent management of peritonitis 5.

Concepts: Time, Dialysis, Hemodialysis, Management, Peritoneum, Peritoneal dialysis, 1913, 1926


The optimal treatment for managing anemia in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and best clinical practices are not completely understood. We sought to characterize international variations in anemia measures and management among PD patients.


How and where to initiate dialysis are policy challenges with enormous economic and health consequences. Initiating with home hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) may reduce costs and improve outcomes but evidence is conflicting.


Patients on home dialysis therapies experience technique failure, which is associated with morbidity and mortality. Reasons for technique failure are complex, and often related to functional decline in the patient or caregiver. Frailty is associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. We investigated the impact of frailty on technique failure and mortality in a prospective cohort of patients on home dialysis therapies.


Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has become an increasingly important treatment modality for end-stage renal disease. However, application of PD in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and subsequent outcomes have not been thoroughly evaluated.


There is no evidence to support the need for protection of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter and exit site for people on PD who want to swim. Swimming with a PD catheter is perceived to potentially put that person at increased risk of infection. Objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of Australian PD units supporting swimming for people on PD, recommendations made to protect the PD catheter, and exit site and any subsequent infective complications.


Neonates requiring peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters have been shown to have complication rates up to 70%. The presence of a concurrent stoma significantly increases the risk of peritonitis, exit-site infection, and catheter failure. As such, multiple techniques have been proposed to reduce these risks, including a chest wall exit site. In this case, the patient was born with bilateral hypoplastic kidneys and an anorectal malformation, requiring a colostomy soon after birth. At 4 weeks of life, he required placement of a PD catheter for dialysis. Given the high risk of infection, a laparoscopic-assisted PD catheter placement with a chest wall exit remote from the colostomy was performed. This report describes the operative technique including omentectomy, placement of a percutaneous stitch between the catheter cuffs, and fibrin glue injection around the catheter. The patient had no catheter-related infections. Laparoscopic-assisted PD catheter placement with chest wall exit site is a safe alternative in patients with any type of abdominal stoma.