Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis


♦ Background: Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) exhibit soluble-fiber properties that beneficially affect bowel function and relieve constipation. The effects of FOS supplementation on constipation and biochemical parameters were examined in elderly continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. ♦ Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was performed in elderly CAPD patients (5 males and 4 females) with chronic constipation. All subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 20 g FOS or placebo daily for 30 days. After a 14-day washout period, the patients were switched to the other substance for 1 more month. Before and after each treatment period, frequency of defecation, characteristics of feces, and colonic transit were evaluated. Biochemical parameters were also assessed. ♦ Results: Fructo-oligosaccharides significantly increased the frequency of defecation (10.5 ± 2.0 vs 6.2 ± 1.4 times per week, p < 0.005) and changed the feces' appearance from type 1 (nut-like) to type 4 (sausage-like). The colonic transit determined by geometric center (GC) was augmented after FOS supplementation (3.9 ± 0.3 vs 3.2 ± 0.4, p < 0.05). Fructo-oligosaccharides had no effects on biochemical parameters. Fructo-oligosaccharides caused mild discomforts which were well tolerated after dose adjustment. ♦ Conclusions: Fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation is effective, well tolerated, and can be an alternative to other laxatives in CAPD patients with constipation. Further studies are needed to better assess the biochemical effects of FOS in the chronic kidney disease population.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Nephrology, Dialysis, Hemodialysis, Constipation, Peritoneum, Peritoneal dialysis, Defecation


♦ Background: For patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) serves as a possible renal replacement therapy. However, most PD patients, particularly those with ESRD and diabetes mellitus, reportedly discontinue PD early, resulting in shorter survival periods and poorer prognosis because of overhydration. Recently, the vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan was approved for volume control in patients with heart failure. The present study aimed to identify the effects of tolvaptan in diabetic PD patients. ♦ Methods: In this pilot study, the tolvaptan group (n = 12) were treated with 15 mg/day of tolvaptan 2 weeks after PD initiation and were prospectively analyzed for 1 year, and patients in the control group (n = 12) did not receive tolvaptan and were retrospectively analyzed for 1 year. In addition to the biochemical tests, echocardiograms, serum atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, peritoneal Kt/V, and creatinine clearance (CCr) were examined at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after PD initiation. ♦ Results: In the control group, the urine volume, renal Kt/V, and renal CCr levels consistently decreased; however, these parameters were stably maintained during the study period in the tolvaptan group. Atrial natriuretic peptide, CRP levels and the left ventricular mass index of the tolvaptan-treated group were significantly lower than those in the control group, whereas total protein and albumin levels were significantly higher at 6 and 12 months in the tolvaptan group. There were no obvious adverse effects. ♦ Conclusions: These data suggest that tolvaptan may preserve residual renal function and improve volume control in PD patients with diabetes mellitus.

Concepts: Renal failure, Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Dialysis, Diabetes mellitus, Urine, Atrial natriuretic peptide


♦ Background: There are no large studies that have examined ultra-short break-in period with a blind, bedside, midline approach to Tenckhoff catheter insertion.♦ Methods: Observational cohort study of 245 consecutive adult patients who underwent percutaneous catheter insertion for chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) at our center from January 2009 to December 2013. There were 132 (53.9%) diabetics and 113 (46.1%) non-diabetics in the cohort.♦ Results: The mean break-in period for the percutaneous group was 2.68 ± 2.6 days. There were significantly more males among the diabetics (103 [78%] vs 66 [58.4%], p = 0.001). Diabetics had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) (23.9 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)vs 22.2 ± 4 kg/m(2), p < 0.001) and lower serum albumin (33.1± 6.3 g/L vs 37 ± 6 g/L, p < 0.001) compared with non- diabetics. Poor catheter outflow was present in 6 (4.5%) diabetics and 16 (14.2%) non-diabetics (p= 0.009). Catheter migration was also significantly more common in the non-diabetic group (11 [9.7%] vs 2 [1.5%], p = 0.004). Primary catheter non-function was present in 17(15%) of the non-diabetics and in 7(5.3%) of the diabetics (p = 0.01). There were no mortality or major non-procedural complications during the catheter insertions. Among patients with 1 year of follow-up data, catheter survival (93/102 [91.2%] vs 71/82 [86.6%], p = 0.32) and technique survival (93/102 [91.2%] vs 70/82 [85.4%], p = 0.22) at 1 year was comparable between diabetics and non-diabetics, respectively.♦ Conclusions: Percutaneous catheter insertion by practicing nephrologists provides a short break-in period with very low mechanical and infective complications. Non-diabetic status emerged as a significant risk factor for primary catheter non-function presumed to be due to more patients with lower BMI and thus smaller abdominal cavities. This is the first report that systematically compares diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

Concepts: Cohort study, Nephrology, Dialysis, Obesity, Body mass index, Peritoneum, Insertion, Insertion sort


Peritonitis is a common and serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Although less than 5% of peritonitis episodes result in death, peritonitis is the direct or major contributing cause of death in around 16% of PD patients (1-6). In addition, severe or prolonged peritonitis leads to structural and functional alterations of the peritoneal membrane, eventually leading to membrane failure. Peritonitis is a major cause of PD technique failure and conversion to long-term hemodialysis (1,5,7,8). Recommendations under the auspices of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) were first published in 1983 and revised in 1993, 1996, 2000, 2005, and 2010 (9-14). The present recommendations are organized into 5 sections: 1. Peritonitis rate 2. Prevention of peritonitis 3. Initial presentation and management of peritonitis 4. Subsequent management of peritonitis 5.

Concepts: Time, Dialysis, Hemodialysis, Management, Peritoneum, Peritoneal dialysis, 1913, 1926


Low serum albumin is associated with high mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on chronic dialysis. Clinicians are reluctant to offer peritoneal dialysis (PD) as an option for dialysis for patients with low serum albumin due to concerns of loss of albumin with PD, but evidence supporting differences in outcomes is limited. We evaluated mortality based on dialysis modality in patients with very low serum albumin (<2.5 g/dL).


Hydrothorax complicating continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) is an uncommon event. Its presentation may occur shortly after or years after initiation of dialysis. Surgical intervention offers the advantage of direct visualization and repair of the diaphragmatic defect. Video assisted thoracoscopy surgery (VATS) has been increasingly used in identifying these defects to facilitate this repair. We present 2 pediatric cases who underwent successful direct surgical repair of diaphragmatic defects using VATS with return to CCPD. Initial approach with VATS should be strongly considered in patients in whom a lifetime change in modality has significant repercussions.


Although peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis secondary to mycobacterium is rare, the treatment is challenging and outcomes remain poor. We report the first case of PD-associated peritonitis secondary to Mycobacterium septicum. The patient is a 53-year-old Caucasian man who developed end-stage kidney disease due to systemic sclerosis. He was initially started on intermittent hemodialysis and was then switched to PD 10 months later. He presented with generalized abdominal pain and an increase in the number of nucleated cells and neutrophils in the dialysate effluent sample (854 total nucleated cells/µL and 512 neutrophils/µL). Ten days later, the fluid grew M. septicum, a rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM). Once the organism was identified, he was treated with moxifloxacin and doxycycline, and the PD catheter was removed. Antibiotics were adjusted due to sensitivities profile and side effects, and he completed 4 months of antibiotic treatment with decreasing cell counts and negative PD fluid cultures. This case highlights the growing list of organisms responsible for NTM peritonitis and complexity of care in the patient with NTM peritonitis.


Patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) may suffer from sodium (Na) and fluid overload, hypertension and increased cardiovascular risk. Low-Na dialysis solution, by increasing the diffusive removal of Na, might improve blood pressure (BP) management.


Catheter obstruction is a major cause of dialysate flow problems in peritoneal dialysis (PD). It will lead to PD technique failure, when its conservative management such as vigorous instillation of dialysate occasionally fails to salvage the catheter potency. In this report, we present two cases of catheter obstruction caused by intraluminal clots of PD catheter. The clots, which could not be removed by the conservative management, were removed by a new technique using an angiographic guidewire. The technique could be an option to resolve PD catheter obstruction.


Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections pose a diagnostic challenge in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In this study, we sought to identify findings that are suggestive of NTM infection in PD adult patients.