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Journal: Orthopedics


To the authors' knowledge, few reports have been published in the English literature of using total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of hereditary multiple exostoses. This article describes 2 patients with hereditary multiple exostoses, 1 treated with total hip arthroplasty and 1 treated with total knee arthroplasty. Bony deformities make arthroplasty uniquely challenging in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty. An expanded metaphysis of the proximal femur, coxa valga deformity, and the presence of hardware from previous reconstructive surgeries can make total hip arthroplasty technically difficult. Substantial bony deformity of the distal femur, valgus deformity of the knee, and sizing issues that necessitate custom implants can make total knee arthroplasty difficult. The most common bony deformities in hereditary multiple exostoses are short stature, limb-length discrepancy, valgus deformity at the knee and ankle, and asymmetry of the pectoral and pelvic girdles. Most reported surgical treatments for patients with hereditary multiple exostoses focus on the pediatric population or the management of malignant transformation of exostoses. Studies that specifically address the conditions associated with knee deformities focus on extra-articular deformity correction rather than arthroplasty.When arthroplasty is necessary in this patient population, an understanding of the commonly occurring deformities can help with preoperative planning and surgical management. All painful lesions must be evaluated for malignant transformation. Bone scans can be useful during workup. All specimens should be sent for pathologic evaluation. Such patients are challenging because of the distorted hip anatomy and valgus knee deformity. The current 2 cases illustrate specific challenges that can be anticipated and underscore key principles for arthroplasty in the management of hereditary multiple exostoses.

Concepts: Varus deformity, Femur, Implants, Hip replacement, Hip, Pelvis, Skeletal disorders, Valgus deformity


Four normal variants of meniscomeniscal ligaments have been previously reported in the anatomy, arthroscopy, and radiology literature. The anterior and posterior transverse meniscal ligaments are the 2 most commonly observed, with a reported frequency of 58% and 1% to 4%, respectively. The last 2 variants include the medial and lateral oblique meniscomeniscal ligaments and account for a combined frequency of 1% to 4%.This article describes 2 patients with unilateral meniscomeniscal ligaments observed on magnetic resonance imaging. One patient had a unilateral lateral meniscomeniscal ligament extending from the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus to the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus and underwent conservative management. The second patient had a unilateral medial meniscomeniscal ligament with a concomitant medial meniscus tear and underwent arthroscopic intervention. The ligament was stable intraoperatively and, therefore, was not resected. Both patients had resolution of their symptoms.These 2 variants are additions to the previously described 4 normal intermeniscal ligament variants. The functions of the 2 new variants described in this article are poorly understood but are thought to involve meniscal stability. Accurate descriptions of normal variants can lead to the proper management of anomalous rare structures and prevent false imaging interpretations because these structures can closely mimic a double posterior cruciate ligament sign. Furthermore, an understanding of the various normal variants of intermeniscal ligaments can prevent unnecessary surgery that could result in further iatrogenic meniscus injury.

Concepts: Magnetic resonance imaging, Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament, Radiology, Ligament, Ligaments, Tear of meniscus, Medial meniscus


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between femoral neck version and pre- and intraoperative findings in hips with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The authors retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data on 188 patients (204 hips) who underwent hip arthroscopy for FAI and labral pathology. Femoral version was measured on magnetic resonance imaging by a fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist. The study group comprised 100 men and 88 women with a mean age of 35 years (range, 18 to 62 years). Mean femoral version was 9° (range, -10° to 27°). No relationship was found between femoral version and patient demographics (ie, age, sex, weight, height, and body mass index). A significant correlation was found between version and degrees of external rotation (r=-0.208; P=.027) and internal rotation (r=0.231; P=.002) on physical examination. Patients with femoral version less than 5° had significantly increased external rotation (P=.027). Intraoperative findings demonstrated that femoral version greater than 15° was related to larger labral tears that averaged approximately 38 mm in size, whereas patients with anteversion less than 5° had tear sizes measuring 30 mm and patients with angles between 5° and 15° had tear sizes averaging 34 mm (P=.008). Hips with femoral version greater than 15° were 2.2 times more likely (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 4.1) to have labral tears that extended beyond the 3 o'clock position, denoting more anterior tears. Hips in which a psoas release was performed had higher version angles (8° vs 11°; P=.023).

Concepts: Measurement, Medical imaging, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Body mass index, Radiology, Sartorius muscle, Nontotient


The vascular anatomy at the spinoglenoid and suprascapular notches appears to be more variable than previously thought. In patients presenting with signs of suprascapular nerve compression, vascular causes must be considered. Especially when considering percutaneous or arthroscopic treatment, awareness of these entities may help to guide treatment decisions, aid in identification of the anatomy, and prevent unwanted vascular insult.

Concepts: Causality, Concepts in metaphysics, Supraspinatus muscle, Suprascapular nerve, Suprascapular notch


Compartment syndrome of the arm is a rare condition because of the large capacity of the arm compartment. Although several cases of compartment syndrome of the forearm associated with vascular access procedures have been reported, the literature contains few detailed reports of compartment syndrome of the arm caused by transcather angiography or angioplasty. This article presents 4 cases of compartment syndrome of the anterior arm caused by transcatheter angiography or angioplasty; all patients required surgical treatment and anticoagulation therapy. Following urgent fasciotomy and hemostasis, 1 patient experienced recurrent bleeding and another exhibited delayed complex regional pain syndrome of the forearm. The remaining 2 cases had good outcomes.Because all patients had been prescribed various oral anticoagulants, their compartment syndrome was considered a complication of thrombolytic therapy. In addition, because all patients had a history of multiple arterial diseases, atherosclerosis was considered to be severely advanced and the vessels to be easily damaged. Due to the authors' experiences with these 4 cases, they recommend that surgery be performed under general rather than local anesthesia and that the bleeding site be sutured or ligated. Compression of the bleeding point alone could allow heavy bleeding or recurrence of bleeding to occur because of the influence of anticoagulation therapy. Continuous bleeding of the arm may expand into the volar compartment of the forearm, leading to a condition similar to chronic compartment syndrome. Effective hemostasis, in addition to early decompressive fasciotomy, is essential in compartment syndrome caused by the catheter procedure.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Stroke, Thrombosis, Surgery, Pulmonary embolism, Syndromes, Compartment syndrome


This report describes a rare case of femoral nerve paresthesia caused by an acetabular paralabral cyst of the hip joint. A 68-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of right hip pain and paresthesia along the anterior thigh and radiating down to the anterior aspect of the knee. Radiography showed osteoarthritis with a narrowed joint space in the right hip joint. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cyst with low T1- and high T2-weighted signal intensity arising from a labral tear at the anterior aspect of the acetabulum. The cyst was connected to the joint space and displaced the femoral nerve to the anteromedial side. The lesion was diagnosed as an acetabular paralabral cyst causing femoral neuropathy. Because the main symptom was femoral nerve paresthesia and the patient desired a less invasive procedure, arthroscopic labral repair was performed to stop synovial fluid flow to the paralabral cyst that was causing the femoral nerve paresthesia. After surgery, the cyst and femoral nerve paresthesia disappeared. At the 18-month follow-up, the patient had no recurrence. There have been several reports of neurovascular compression caused by the cyst around the hip joint. To the authors' knowledge, only 3 cases of acetabular paralabral cysts causing sciatica have been reported. The current patient appears to represent a rare case of an acetabular paralabral cyst causing femoral nerve paresthesia. The authors suggest that arthroscopic labral repair for an acetabular paralabral cyst causing neuropathy can be an option for patients who desire a less invasive procedure.

Concepts: Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Pelvis, Sartorius muscle, Synovial joint, Joints, Femoral nerve, Anterior compartment of thigh


Studies have shown the effectiveness of cervical disk replacement. However, clinical outcomes, particularly by radiographic assessment during the 36-month follow-up visit, have not been reported for cervical disk replacement with Mobi-C (LDR, Austin, Texas) disk prostheses. A retrospective study was conducted at 10 centers across China and included 65 patients who underwent single-level Mobi-C disk prosthesis replacement from October 2009 to July 2010. Clinical and radiographic data were collected before replacement, 7 days postoperatively, and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months postoperatively. Clinical and neurologic outcomes were assessed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, visual analog scale (VAS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Odom’s criteria. Static and dynamic radiographs were measured to determine intervertebral height and range of motion (ROM) of the cervical spine, the functional spinal unit, the treated segment, and adjacent segments. JOA, VAS, and NDI scores showed statistically significant improvement 36 months after replacement (P<.05). The ROM of the cervical spine, functional spinal unit, treated segment, and adjacent segments did not show a significant difference before and after replacement (P>.05). The intervertebral height of the treated segment increased significantly, and the intervertebral height of adjacent segments showed no statistical significance between time points and at follow-up. Clinical outcomes indicated that Mobi-C artificial cervical disk replacement is reliable. Radiographic data showed that it plays a role in reconstruction or maintenance of intervertebral height and ROM of the cervical spine, functional spinal unit, treated segment, and adjacent segments after Mobi-C cervical disk replacement.

Concepts: Statistics, Statistical significance, Vertebral column, Ronald Fisher, Statistical hypothesis testing, Circle, Artificial organ, Cervical vertebrae


Stabilizing the acromioclavicular joint in the vertical and horizontal planes is challenging, and most current techniques do not reliably achieve this goal. The BiPOD repair is an arthroscopically assisted procedure performed with image intensifier guidance that reconstructs the coracoclavicular ligaments as well as the acromioclavicular ligaments to achieve bidirectional stability. Repair is achieved with a combination of 2-mm FiberTape (Arthrex, Naples, Florida) and 20-mm Poly-Tape (Neoligaments, Leeds, England) to achieve rigid repair, prevent bone abrasion, and promote tissue ingrowth. This study is a prospective review of the first 6 patients treated for high-grade acute acromioclavicular injury with the BiPOD technique. The study included 6 men who were 21 to 36 years old (mean, 27 years). At 6-month follow-up, complications were recorded and radiographic analysis was used to determine the coracoclavicular distance for vertical reduction and the amount of acromioclavicular translation on the Alexander axillary view was used to determine horizontal reduction. One patient had a superficial infection over the tape knot. The difference in coracoclavicular distance between the operated side and the uninvolved side was 9±2 mm preoperatively and 0.3±2 mm at 6-month follow-up. On Alexander axillary view, all 6 patients showed stable reduction, which is defined as a clavicle that is in line with the acromion. The findings show that BiPOD acromioclavicular reconstruction restores bidirectional stability of the acromioclavicular joint at 6 months. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):exx-exx.].

Concepts: Bone, Joint, Orthopedic surgery, Horizontal plane, Clavicle, Acromioclavicular joint, Acromion, Acromioclavicular ligament


Bucket-handle meniscal tears are extremely rare injuries in the pediatric population. Given the known sequelae of meniscal tears and the development of osteoarthritis, early diagnosis and treatment of pediatric meniscal tears are essential. The communication barrier between physicians and pediatric patients, however, creates difficulties in making the correct diagnosis of meniscal pathology. Providers should have a low threshold for obtaining further confirmatory advanced imaging if patients present with prolonged knee pain and swelling, with associated locking mechanical symptoms. Good clinical outcomes following meniscal repair have been observed, likely a result of the increased residual vascularity found within pediatric menisci. The youngest reported case of an isolated traumatic bucket-handle medial meniscal tear is examined in this article. A 2-year-old girl presented with right knee pain after a heavy object fell onto the knee several weeks earlier. On examination, the patient walked with a limp but lacked full range of active knee motion. The McMurray test elicited pain without a mechanical or palpable click. After the patient continued to exhibit limitations following conservative management, magnetic resonance imaging of the right knee was obtained, which showed a bucket-handle tear of the right medial meniscus. The patient subsequently underwent meniscal repair and, on recovery, was able to regain normal functioning of the right knee without limitations. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

Concepts: Patient, Physician, Magnetic resonance imaging, Surface tension, Conservatism, Tear of meniscus, Meniscus, Medial meniscus


The low-molecular-weight fraction of 5% human serum albumin (LMWF-5A) is being developed to treat the signs and symptoms of severe osteoarthritis of the knee. This study was a post hoc pooled analysis of 3 randomized placebo-controlled trials of a single intra-articular injection of LMWF-5A, focusing on the subset of patients with severe osteoarthritis of the knee (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 4). Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a single 4-mL intra-articular knee injection of either LMWF-5A or saline. Safety was assessed as the incidence and severity of adverse events. Efficacy was assessed as the change from baseline to week 12 on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain (primary outcome), stiffness, and physical function subscores and on patient global assessment scores and was presented as the least squares mean difference and 95% confidence interval. The proportion of responders was defined with the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology-Osteoarthritis Research Society International criteria for scenario D and examined with Pearson’s chi-square test. For 417 patients with severe osteoarthritis of the knee, treatment with LMWF-5A resulted in a significant decrease in pain at 12 weeks compared with saline (mean difference, -0.19; 95% confidence interval, -0.34 to -0.04; P=.016), with improvements in function (mean difference, -0.15; 95% confidence interval, -0.31 to 0.01) and patient global assessment (mean difference, -0.30; 95% confidence interval, -0.49 to -0.12) and higher responder rates (64.25% vs 50.90%, P=.006). No drug-related serious adverse events and no deaths occurred, and the incidence and severity of adverse events were similar across treatment groups. This pooled analysis supports the use of LMWF-5A as a safe therapeutic agent for relief of the signs and symptoms of severe osteoarthritis of the knee. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

Concepts: Osteoarthritis, Knee, Joint, Normal distribution, Chi-square test, Chi-square distribution, Pearson's chi-square test