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Journal: Oral oncology

143

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is now known to cause a significant proportion of head and neck cancers (HNC). Qualitative research has shown that some health professionals find it difficult to discuss HPV with patients due to its sexually transmitted nature, and have concerns about their own knowledge of the virus. We used a survey to quantify attitudes towards discussing HPV among HNC health professionals.

Concepts: AIDS, Scientific method, Epidemiology, Cancer, Human papillomavirus, Oral sex, Human sexual behavior, Head and neck cancer

28

PURPOSE: The incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) is increasing, and treatment advances have contributed to improvements in survival. However, a growing number of HNC survivors now live with the long-term consequences of cancer treatment, in particular, problems with eating. The combined effects of HNC cancer, intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have a profound impact on functional, psychological, social and physical aspects of eating. Evidence is needed to underpin new rehabilitation approaches to address these complex problems. This review aimed to identify and summarise the evidence for rehabilitation interventions aimed at alleviating eating problems after HNC treatment. METHODS: A systematic review of studies indexed in Medline, CinAHL and PsycINFO using search terms relevant to a wide range of aspects of eating. Publications reporting empirical findings regarding physical, functional and/or psychosocial factors were included. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies were identified. Fifteen focussed on swallowing exercises, eight on interventions to improve jaw mobility and four on swallowing and jaw exercises. None included interventions to address the complex combination of functional, physical and psychological problems associated with eating in this patient group. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights that, whilst there is some evidence to support interventions aimed at improving swallowing and jaw mobility following treatment for HNC, studies are limited by their size and scope. Larger, high quality studies, which include patient-reported outcome measures, are required to underpin the development of patient-centred rehabilitation programmes. There is also a particular need to develop and evaluate interventions, which address the psychological and/or social aspects of eating.

Concepts: Better, Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Improve, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Head and neck cancer, Problem solving

28

Patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) have limited treatment options. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) represents a novel therapeutic approach warranting additional investigation in solid tumors.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Cancer, Oncology, Histone, Histone deacetylase, Squamous cell carcinoma, Head and neck cancer, Histone deacetylase inhibitor

26

The aim of this work was to identify risk genes related to the development and progression of squamous cell carcinoma head and neck (SCCHN) and do a meta-analysis of available estimates. Eligible gene/polymorphism studies were identified by electronic searches. Individual participant data of 8540 patients with HNC and 9844 controls from 19 genetic studies were analyzed, yielding adjusted (tobacco, gender, age and alcohol) odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing cases with controls. A meta-analysis was done on the studies that applied fixed and random models. People have an increase of polymorphism expression related to inflammation (NFKB1-294-ATTG, TNFα308-A2A2/A2A1, and TNFβ252- B2B2/B2B1) or carcinogenic metabolism (GSTM1 null, and CYP1A1 m1/m1), representative of malignancy development. Furthermore, the increased expression of genes associated with the stabilization and repair of the cellular (OGG1-Asp267Asn, Ser279Gly Ile253Phe, 1578A>T, 1582C>T Ala399Glu (1542C>A) 1582insG 1543_1544delCT), and genes associated with the regulation of proliferation, apoptosis or tumor survival (miRNA499-CT/CC, CRYABC802G-CG/GG) are considered as risk factors. In this scheme, only the polymorphisms of ADH7A92G-GG and DEC1606-T/C genes are protective against malignancy transformation. The TP53, GSTM1 and CYPA1genes have been evaluated in more than one study and analyzed for homogeneity in each genotype. The meta-analysis showed no significant association between different allelic variants of Arg72Pro rs1042522 and SCCHN risk. In a model of tumorigenesis, an increased risk of SCCHN is associated with DNA repair and DNA stabilization genes. In addition, the polymorphisms involved in inflammation and carcinogenic metabolism processes represent an increased risk of SCCHN.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Gene expression, Cancer, Bacteria, Evolution, Squamous cell carcinoma

25

Angiogenesis is a crucial step in tumor growth and metastasis. Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) highly express angiogenesis factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are associated with patient prognosis. Antiangiogenesis agents can potentially modulate tumor microenvironment and induce radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying angiogenesis involved in HNSCC, preclinical data with antiangiogenesis agents as well as potential predictive biomarkers. We also review novel therapies under investigation and summarize the results of clinical trials using antiangiogenesis agents alone or in combination with conventional therapies in HNSCC.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Lung cancer, Angiogenesis, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Head and neck cancer

24

Evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of short- and long-term e-cigarette vapor exposure on a panel of normal epithelial and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines.

Concepts: Cell, Cigarette, Nicotine, Squamous cell carcinoma

23

Target volume selection and delineation for both the primary tumor and the lymph nodes are critical steps in the treatment of head and neck tumors with Intensity Modulated Radiation therapy (IMRT). These steps should be based on a probabilistic approach, which is that selection and delineation will be considered as optimal when reaching the best compromise between a too tight volume that could be associated to an unacceptable rate of local recurrence, and a too large volume, which could be associated to an unacceptable rate of treatment morbidity. Failure to do so have been reported to be associated to a higher risk of loco-regional recurrences and/or morbidity after treatment. In this framework, groups of experts proposed sets of guidelines for the radiation oncology community, aiming at standardizing radiotherapy practices of head and neck cancer patients. Although in constant improvement, such guidelines have been shown to translate into more consistent treatment approaches. This review article summarizes the knowledge accumulated over the years on target volume selection and delineation and tries to reconcile the various schools of thoughts on the topic.

23

Altered fractionation radiotherapy and concomitant chemoradiotherapy represent commonly used intensification strategies in the management of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LA-SCCHN). This meta-analysis compares compliance, safety, and efficacy between two single-agent cisplatin schedules given concurrently with altered fractionation radiotherapy.

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Cancer, Lung cancer, Chemotherapy, Carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Head and neck cancer

23

High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are the cause of most ano-genital cancers and a fast growing subset of oropharyngeal cancer. As these malignancies occur as a result of an HPV- infection transmitted through intimate contact, many patients with HPV- induced cancer and their partners are concerned about HPV-transmission and the potential partners' cancer risk. Few studies have addressed this issue and whether the HPV-related cancer risk of partners of patients with HPV-related cancers is comparable to or greater than that of the general population.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Disease, Oncology, Human papillomavirus, Lung cancer, Anal cancer, P53

6

We aimed to assess the association of oral health (OH), dental care (DC) and mouthwash with upper-aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk, and to examine the extent that enzymes involved in the metabolism of alcohol modify the effect of mouthwash.

Concepts: Health care, Alcohol, Metabolism, Enzyme, Yeast, The Association, Dental implant, Dentistry