Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Open forum infectious diseases


Multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections are associated with high mortality and readmission rates. Infectious diseases (ID) consultation improves clinical outcomes for drug-resistantStaphylococcus aureusbloodstream infections. Our goal was to determine the association between ID consultation and mortality following various MDRO infections.

Concepts: Immune system, Medicine, Epidemiology, Disease, Infectious disease, Death, Infection, The Association


Directly observed therapy (DOT) remains an integral component of treatment support and adherence monitoring in tuberculosis care. In-person DOT is resource intensive and often burdensome for patients. Video DOT (vDOT) has been proposed as an alternative to increase treatment flexibility and better meet patient-specific needs.


Kindergarten-entry vaccination requirements have played an important role in controlling vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Forty-eight states and the District of Colombia offer nonmedical exemptions to vaccines, ranging in stringency.

Concepts: Vaccine, Vaccination, United States, Washington, D.C., Humid subtropical climate, Organization of American States


As more patients seek care in the outpatient setting, the opportunities for health care-acquired infections and associated outbreaks will increase. Without uptake of core infection prevention and control strategies through formal initiation of infection prevention programs, outbreaks and patient safety issues will surface. This review provides a step-wise approach for implementing an outpatient infection control program, highlighting some of the common pitfalls and high-priority areas.


Background.  Little is known about the American public’s perceptions or knowledge about antibiotic-resistant bacteria or antibiotic misuse. We hypothesized that although many people recognize antibiotic resistance as a problem, they may not understand the relationship between antibiotic consumption and selection of resistant bacteria. Methods.  We developed and tested a survey asking respondents about their perceptions and knowledge regarding appropriate antibiotic use. Respondents were recruited with the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. The survey, carefully designed to assess a crowd-sourced population, asked respondents to explain “antibiotic resistance” in their own words. Subsequent questions were multiple choice. Results.  Of 215 respondents, the vast majority agreed that inappropriate antibiotic use contributes to antibiotic resistance (92%), whereas a notable proportion (70%) responded neutrally or disagreed with the statement that antibiotic resistance is a problem. Over 40% of respondents indicated that antibiotics were the best choice to treat a fever or a runny nose and sore throat. Major themes from the free-text responses included that antibiotic resistance develops by bacteria, or by the infection, or the body (ie, an immune response). Minor themes included antibiotic overuse and antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial adaptation or an immune response. Conclusions.  Our findings indicate that the public is aware that antibiotic misuse contributes to antibiotic resistance, but many do not consider it to be an important problem. The free-text responses suggest specific educational targets, including the difference between an immune response and bacterial adaptation, to increase awareness and understanding of antibiotic resistance.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Understanding, Antibiotic resistance, Antibiotic, Microorganism, Penicillin, Antibiotics


Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge to global health. Healthcare workers (HCWs) appear to be at increased risk of TB compared with the general population, despite efforts to scale up infection control and reduce nosocomial TB transmission. This review aims to provide an updated estimate of the occupational risk of latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB among HCWs compared with the general population.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Medicine, Healthcare, Epidemiology, Infectious disease, Tuberculosis, Latent tuberculosis


Anecdotal evidence suggests that a high proportion of patients diagnosed with HIV in Guatemala present with AIDS. There remain limited data on the epidemiology of AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) in Central America.

Concepts: Guatemala, Mexico, Central America, Evidence, Indigenous peoples of the Americas


Antimicrobial stewardship in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients remains underutilized in North America. European guidelines advise de-escalation of broad-spectrum therapy after 72 hours in select patients with neutropenic fever of unknown origin. This is not commonplace in the United States, as current guidelines recommend broad-spectrum therapy until neutrophil engraftment. If de-escalating after at least 5 days of broad-spectrum therapy and defervescence in neutropenic allo-HSCT recipients does not predispose them to recurrent fever or infection, the practice could afford several benefits.

Concepts: United States, Chemotherapy, Organ transplant, Hematopoietic stem cell, Fever, North America, Americas, Latin America


To impart principles of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) and infection prevention and control (IPC), we developed a curriculum tailored to the diverse aptitudes of learners at our medical center.

Concepts: Infectious disease, Developed country, Curriculum, Curricula


Sixty-one percent of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) who received outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) failed treatment. Hospital readmission and adverse drug reactions occurred in 25%. By multivariate analysis, time since last IVDU was associated with failure (P = .04). Intravenous drug users requiring OPAT are at high risk for failure; additional studies are needed to explore alternatives.

Concepts: Drug, Multivariate statistics, Heroin, Adverse drug reaction, Antibiotic, Failure, Drug injection, Methamphetamine