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Journal: Oncology letters


SOFT TISSUE TUMORS ARE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR HISTOLOGICAL RESEMBLANCE TO NORMAL ADULT TISSUES AND CAN BE GROUPED INTO THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES BASED ON METASTATIC POTENTIAL: benign, intermediate (locally aggressive), intermediate (rarely metastasizing) and malignant. Over the past two decades, considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the genetic background of soft tissue tumors. Traditional laboratory techniques, such as cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), can be used for diagnostic purposes in soft tissue pathology practice. Moreover, cytogenetic and molecular studies are often necessary for prognostics and follow-up of soft tissue sarcoma patients. This review provides updated information on the applicability of laboratory genetic testing in the diagnosis of benign and intermediate soft tissue tumors. These tumors include nodular fasciitis, chondroid lipoma, collagenous fibroma (desmoplastic fibroblastoma), giant cell tumor of tendon sheath (GCTTS)/pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), angiofibroma of soft tissue, myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) and ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT).

Concepts: Genetics, Cancer, Oncology, Extracellular matrix, Soft tissue sarcoma, Anatomical pathology, Fluorescent in situ hybridization, Cytogenetics


The current study sought to assess the role of paraaortic lymphadenectomy (LNE) in females with endometrial cancer. A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer of stage IA to II preoperatively, between 2009 and 2011 was conducted. Patients were included who had suffered from endometrial cancer without preoperative adjuvant therapy and who underwent hysterectomy plus systematic pelvic LNE and paraaortic LNE by laparoscopy or laparotomy. A total of 54 patients who underwent surgery for preoperative endometrial cancer were selected. All patients underwent LNE. The incidences of pelvic and paraaortic lymph node metastases were 11.1% (6/54) and 7.4% (4/54), with a total positive lymph node rate of 14.8% (8/54). In addition, among the 8 positive cases, 5 patients underwent laparotomy and 3 underwent laparoscopy; 3 cases were classified as stage I and 5 as stage II preoperatively. Of these, 7 patients were identified with pathology-related risk factors, including low differentiation or clear cell adenocarcinoma postoperatively. Discordance of pathological differentiation between the pre- and postoperative stages reached 57.1% (4/7). The results revealed the high occurrence of positive lymph nodes in endometrial cancer which demonstrate the importance of systematic LNE. Additonally, no severe complications were caused by LNE besides lymph cysts. In summary, it is neccesary to perform LNE, particularly the removal of the paraaortic lymph node, in patients with endometrial cancers in order to improve postoperative therapy. Laparoscopy has similar surgical effects as laparotomy, but has a number of advantages.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Lymph node, Surgery, Endometrial cancer, Paraaortic lymph node


A 62-year-old female with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; also von Recklinghausen’s disease) was diagnosed with a giant, thick-walled tubular mass, mainly located in the right abdominal area on computed tomography, following an examination for intermittent abdominal pain and increasing abdominal distension. According to the clinical manifestations and imaging features, the giant tubular mass was considered most likely to be a dilated fallopian tube associated with infection, while the possibility of obstructed bowel loops was excluded. However, the subsequent laparotomy revealed a giant appendix, caused by a large neurofibroma in the root region of the appendix, which occluded the lumen. Neurofibroma of the appendix is extremely rare, even in patients with NF1. To the best of our knowledge, only three such cases have previously been reported in the English literature to date.

Concepts: Neurology, Abdominal pain, Bowel obstruction, Neurofibromatosis type I, Neurofibromatosis, Abdominal distension, Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen, Café au lait spot


Damnacanthal, an anthraquinone compound, is isolated from the roots of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni), which has been used for traditional therapy in several chronic diseases, including cancer. Although noni has long been consumed in Asian and Polynesian countries, the molecular mechanisms by which it exerts several benefits are starting to emerge. In the present study, the effect of damnacanthal on MCF-7 cell growth regulation was investigated. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with damnacanthal for 72 h indicated an antiproliferative activity. The MTT method confirmed that damnacanthal inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 8.2 μg/ml for 72 h. In addition, the drug was found to induce cell cycle arrest at the G1 checkpoint in MCF-7 cells by cell cycle analysis. Damnacanthal induced apoptosis, determined by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) dual-labeling, acridine-orange/PI dyeing and caspase-7 expression. Furthermore, damnacanthal-mediated apoptosis involves the sustained activation of p21, leading to the transcription of p53 and the Bax gene. Overall, the present study provided significant evidence demonstrating that p53-mediated damnacanthal induced apoptosis through the activation of p21 and caspase-7.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Gene expression, Cancer, Breast cancer, Apoptosis, Chemotherapy, Cell cycle


Altered glucose metabolism has been described as a cause of chemoresistance in multiple tumor types. The present study aimed to identify the expression profile of glucose metabolism in drug-resistant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and provide potential strategies for the treatment of drug-resistant AML. Bone marrow and serum samples were obtained from patients with AML that were newly diagnosed or had relapsed. The messenger RNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, glucose transporter (GLUT)1, and hexokinase-II was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The levels of LDH and β subunit of human F1-F0 adenosine triphosphate synthase (β-F1-ATPase) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and western blot assays. The HL-60 and HL-60/ADR cell lines were used to evaluate glycolytic activity and effect of glycolysis inhibition on cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Drug-resistant HL-60/ADR cells exhibited a significantly increased level of glycolysis compared with the drug-sensitive HL-60 cell line. The expression of HIF-1α, hexokinase-II, GLUT1 and LDH were increased in AML patients with no remission (NR), compared to healthy control individuals and patients with complete remission (CR) and partial remission. The expression of β-F1-ATPase in patients with NR was decreased compared with the expression in the CR group. Treatment of HL-60/ADR cells with 2-deoxy-D-glucose or 3-bromopyruvate increased in vitro sensitivity to Adriamycin (ADR), while treatment of HL-60 cells did not affect drug cytotoxicity. Subsequent to treatment for 24 h, apoptosis in these two cell lines showed no significant difference. However, glycolytic inhibitors in combination with ADR increased cellular necrosis. These findings indicate that increased glycolysis and low efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation may contribute to drug resistance. Targeting glycolysis is a viable strategy for modulating chemoresistance in AML.

Concepts: DNA, Gene expression, Cell, Adenosine triphosphate, Enzyme, Glucose, Oxidative phosphorylation, Glycolysis


The aim of the present population-based cohort study was to analyze the association between the prevalence of 32 types of human papilloma virus (HPV) in 615 female patients with abnormal cervical cytopathology findings. In total, 32 HPV types were screened by DNA array technology. HPV infection was detected in 470 women (76.42%), 419 of whom (89.15%) were infected with ≥1 high-risk (HR)-HPV type. HPV16, which is recognized as the main HR-HPV type responsible for the development of cervical cancer, was observed in 32.98% of HPV(+) participants, followed by HPV42 (18.09%), HPV31 (17.66%), HPV51 (13.83%), HPV56 (10.00%), HPV53 (8.72%) and HPV66 (8.72%). The prevalence of HR-HPV types, which may be suppressed directly (in the case of HPV16 and 18), or possibly via cross-protection (in the case of HPV31) following vaccination, was considerably lower in participants ≤22 years of age (HPV16, 28.57%; HPV18, 2.04%; HPV31, 6.12%), compared with participants 23-29 years of age (HPV16, 45.71%; HPV18, 7.86%; HPV31, 22.86%), who were less likely to be vaccinated. Consequently, the present study hypothesizes that there may be a continuous shift in the prevalence of HPV types as a result of vaccination. Furthermore, the percentage of non-vaccine HR-HPV types was higher than expected, considering that eight HPV types formerly classified as ‘low-risk’ or ‘probably high-risk’ are in fact HR-HPV types. Therefore, it may be important to monitor non-vaccine HPV types in future studies, and an investigation concerning several HR-HPV types as risk factors for the development of cervical cancer is required.

Concepts: Immune system, Human papillomavirus, Cervical cancer, Papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, Gardasil, Anal cancer, Cervarix


Growing evidence indicates that the presence of extensive oxidative stress plays an essential role in the initiation and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation is involved in the elevation of oxidative stress, contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation. In the present study, human placenta amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMMSCs) were intravenously injected into C57BL/6J-APP transgenic mice. hAMMSCs significantly ameliorated spatial learning and memory function, and were associated with a decreased amount of amyloid plaques of the brain. The correlation of oxidative stress with Aβ levels was lower in the hAMMSCs-injected group than in the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-injected group, as indicated by the increased level of antioxidative enzymes and the decreased level of lipid peroxidation product. The glutathione (GSH) level and ratio of GSH to glutathione disulfide were higher in the hAMMSC group than in the PBS group. The superoxide dismutase activity and malonaldehyde level were improved significantly as the level of Aβ decreased, but there was no such trend in the PBS group. As a result, our findings represent evidence that hAMMSC treatment might improve the pathology of AD and memory function through the regulation of oxidative stress.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Antioxidant, Stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell, Oxidative stress, Reactive oxygen species, Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione


The therapeutic activity of drugs can be optimized by establishing an individualized dosage, based on the measurement of the drug concentration in the serum, particularly if the drugs are characterized by an inter-individual variation in pharmacokinetics that results in an under- or overexposure to treatment. In recent years, several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed to block intracellular signaling pathways in tumor cells. These oral drugs are candidates for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) due to their high inter-individual variability for therapeutic and toxic effects. Following a literature search on PubMed, studies on TKIs and their pharmacokinetic characteristics, plasma quantification and inter-individual variability was studied. TDM is commonly used in various medical fields, including cardiology and psychiatry, but is not often applied in oncology. Plasma concentration monitoring has been thoroughly studied for imatinib, in order to evaluate the usefulness of TDM. The measurement of plasma concentration can be performed by various analytical techniques, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry being the reference method. This method is currently used to monitor the efficacy and tolerability of imatinib treatments. Although TDM is already being used for imatinib, additional studies are required in order to improve this practice with the inclusion of other TKIs.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Medicine, Cancer, Oncology, Signal transduction, Protein kinase, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics


Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, and ovarian cancer stem cells (CSCs) serve a pivotal function in the metastasis and recurrence of ovarian cancer. Multiple previous studies have validated CD133 as a marker of ovarian CSCs. Although salinomycin is a promising therapeutic agent that has been demonstrated to kill CSCs in various types of cancer, poor aqueous solubility hampers its clinical application. The present study used salinomycin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) nanoparticles conjugated with CD133 antibodies (CD133-SAL-NP) to eliminate CD133+ ovarian CSCs. The results revealed that CD133-SAL-NPs were of an appropriate size (149.2 nm) and exhibited sustained drug release. CD133-SAL-NPs efficiently bound to CD133+ ovarian cancer cells, resulting in an increased cytotoxic effect in CD133+ ovarian cancer cells, compared with the untargeted SAL-NPs and salinomycin. CD133-SAL-NPs reduced the percentage of CD133+ ovarian CSCs in ovarian cells more effectively than treatment with salinomycin or SAL-NPs, suggesting that CD133-SAL-NP targeted CD133+ ovarian CSCs. In nude mice bearing ovarian cancer xenografts, CD133-SAL-NPs exerted improved therapeutic effects compared with SAL-NPs and salinomycin. Thus, CD133 was demonstrated to be a promising target for drug delivery to ovarian CSCs, and may be useful as an agent to inhibit the growth of ovarian cancer by targeting CD133+ ovarian CSCs. CD133-SAL-NPs may therefore represent a promising approach for the treatment of ovarian cancer.


CXC ligand (L)12 is a chemokine implicated in the migration, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells via interaction with its receptors CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4 and CXCR7. In the present study, CXCL12-mediated Ca2+signalling was compared with two basal-like breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, which demonstrate distinct metastatic potential. CXCL12 treatment induced Ca2+responses in the more metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells but not in the less metastatic MDA-MB-468 cells. Assessment of mRNA levels of CXCL12 receptors and their potential modulators in both cell lines revealed that CXCR4 and CXCR7 levels were increased in MDA-MB-231 cells compared with MDA-MB-468 cells. Cluster of differentiation (CD)24, the negative regulator of CXCL12 responses, demonstrated increased expression in MDA-MB-468 cells compared with MDA-MB-231 cells, and the two cell lines expressed comparable levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)2α, a CXCR4 regulator. Induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by epidermal growth factor exhibited opposite effects on CXCR4 mRNA levels compared with hypoxia-induced EMT. Neither EMT inducer exhibited an effect on CXCR7 expression, however hypoxia increased HIF2α expression levels in MDA-MB-468 cells. Analysis of the gene expression profiles of breast tumours revealed that the highest expression levels of CXCR4 and CXCR7 were in the Claudin-Low molecular subtype, which is markedly associated with EMT features.

Concepts: DNA, Gene expression, Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Signal transduction, Chemotherapy