SciCombinator

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Journal: Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD

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Long-term adherence to conventional weight-loss diets is limited while intermittent fasting has risen in popularity. We compared the effects of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity and ≥1 additional component of metabolic syndrome.

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Obesity is an important public health issue because of its high prevalence and concomitant increase in risk of cardiovascular diseases. Low carbohydrate diets are popular for weight loss and weight management but are not recommended in leading guidelines due to the perception that increases in dietary fat intake may lead to an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. To clarify the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss on cardiovascular disease risk factors as compared to a low fat diet for weight loss, we systematically reviewed data from randomized controlled clinical trials and large observational studies.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Disease, Nutrition, Obesity, Cardiovascular disease, Dieting, Diets, Low-carbohydrate diet

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Compared to a DASH-type diet, an intensively applied dietary portfolio reduced diastolic blood pressure at 24 weeks as a secondary outcome in a previous study. Due to the importance of strategies to reduce blood pressure, we performed an exploratory analysis pooling data from intensively and routinely applied portfolio treatments from the same study to assess the effect over time on systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP), and the relation to sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and portfolio components.

Concepts: Blood, Hypertension, Blood pressure, Artery, Vein, Potassium, Mean arterial pressure

6

The well-established triglyceride (TG) lowering effect of fish oil is accompanied by an increase in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. Less is known about the differential impact on LDL particle distribution - the smaller particles being associated with a greater risk for atherosclerosis. We aimed to examine the changes in serum concentrations of four subclasses of LDL particles as well as shifts in LDL phenotype patterns (A, B, AB) among hypertriglyceridemic adults.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Statin, Atheroma, High-density lipoprotein

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Our recently published randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of a low-calorie diet with carbohydrates eaten at dinner. This dietary pattern led to lower hunger scores, and better anthropometric, biochemical and inflammatory outcomes compared to a standard low-calorie diet. In the same study, changes in diurnal secretion patterns of leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin were investigated.

Concepts: Protein, Clinical trial, Human, Nutrition, Death, Insulin, Obesity, Adipose tissue

4

The relationship between dietary macronutrient composition and appetite is controversial. We examined the effects of a year-long low-carbohydrate diet compared to a low-fat diet on appetite-related hormones and self-reported change in appetite.

Concepts: Protein, Nutrition, Obesity, Randomized controlled trial, Diets, Zone diet

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Because pro-inflammatory stimulants of Toll-like receptor-2 and TLR4 (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs), are abundant in some processed foods, we explored the effects of diets enriched or depleted in these molecules on markers of cardiometabolic risk in man.

Concepts: Immune system, Toll-like receptor, Pattern recognition receptor

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To systematically review the latest evidence on established and emerging nutrition-related risk factors for incidence of and mortality from total, ischemic and haemorrhagic strokes. The present review was conducted in the framework of the work carried out through 2015 and 2016 for the preparation of the Italian Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Stroke, 8th Edition, by ISO-SPREAD (Italian Stroke Organization and the Stroke Prevention and Educational Awareness Diffusion).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Human, Nutrition, Medical statistics, Stroke, Diet, The Stroke

3

Evidence on the association yogurt consumption and obesity is not conclusive. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the association between yogurt consumption, reversion of abdominal obesity status and waist circumference change in elderly.

Concepts: The Association, Abdomen, Waist, Sunshine pop

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Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes which has been largely attributed to their healthy fatty acid profile, yet this has not been ascertained. Therefore, we investigated the effect of nut consumption on serum fatty acid concentrations and how these relate to changes in markers of glycemic control and calculated CHD risk score in type 2 diabetes.

Concepts: Nutrition, Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Heart, Obesity, Diabetes, Heart disease