SciCombinator

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Journal: Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD

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The well-established triglyceride (TG) lowering effect of fish oil is accompanied by an increase in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. Less is known about the differential impact on LDL particle distribution - the smaller particles being associated with a greater risk for atherosclerosis. We aimed to examine the changes in serum concentrations of four subclasses of LDL particles as well as shifts in LDL phenotype patterns (A, B, AB) among hypertriglyceridemic adults.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Statin, Atheroma, High-density lipoprotein

5

Our recently published randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of a low-calorie diet with carbohydrates eaten at dinner. This dietary pattern led to lower hunger scores, and better anthropometric, biochemical and inflammatory outcomes compared to a standard low-calorie diet. In the same study, changes in diurnal secretion patterns of leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin were investigated.

Concepts: Protein, Clinical trial, Human, Nutrition, Death, Insulin, Obesity, Adipose tissue

4

Because pro-inflammatory stimulants of Toll-like receptor-2 and TLR4 (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs), are abundant in some processed foods, we explored the effects of diets enriched or depleted in these molecules on markers of cardiometabolic risk in man.

Concepts: Immune system, Toll-like receptor, Pattern recognition receptor

4

A Mediterranean-like dietary pattern has been shown to be inversely associated with many diseases, but its role in early obesity prevention is not clear. We aimed to determine if this pattern is common among European children and whether it is associated with overweight and obesity.

Concepts: Cancer, Nutrition, Death, Obesity, Overweight, Europe, Dieting, Body shape

3

The relationship between dietary macronutrient composition and appetite is controversial. We examined the effects of a year-long low-carbohydrate diet compared to a low-fat diet on appetite-related hormones and self-reported change in appetite.

Concepts: Protein, Nutrition, Obesity, Randomized controlled trial, Diets, Zone diet

3

Evidence on the association yogurt consumption and obesity is not conclusive. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the association between yogurt consumption, reversion of abdominal obesity status and waist circumference change in elderly.

Concepts: The Association, Abdomen, Waist, Sunshine pop

3

Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes which has been largely attributed to their healthy fatty acid profile, yet this has not been ascertained. Therefore, we investigated the effect of nut consumption on serum fatty acid concentrations and how these relate to changes in markers of glycemic control and calculated CHD risk score in type 2 diabetes.

Concepts: Nutrition, Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Heart, Obesity, Diabetes, Heart disease

3

Diets where carbohydrate has been partially exchanged for protein have shown beneficial changes in persons with type 2 diabetes but no studies have enrolled people with albuminuria. We aim to determine if a high protein to carbohydrate ratio (HPD) in an energy reduced diet has a beneficial effect on metabolic control and cardiovascular risk factors without negatively affecting renal function.

Concepts: Protein, Metabolism, Nutrition, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Glucose, Obesity

3

The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the long-term effects of glycemic index-related diets in the management of obesity with a special emphasis on the potential benefits of low glycemic index/load (GI/GL) in the prevention of obesity-associated risks.

Concepts: Present, Time, Systematic review, Meta-analysis

3

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Routine, periodic fasting is associated with a lower prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Animal studies show that fasting may increase longevity and alter biological parameters related to longevity. We evaluated whether fasting initiates acute changes in biomarker expression in humans that may impact short- and long-term health. METHODS AND RESULTS: Apparently-healthy volunteers (N = 30) without a recent history of fasting were enrolled in a randomized cross-over trial. A one-day water-only fast was the intervention and changes in biomarkers were the study endpoints. Bonferroni correction required p ≤ 0.00167 for significance (p < 0.05 was a trend that was only suggestively significant). The one-day fasting intervention acutely increased human growth hormone (p = 1.1 × 10(-4)), hemoglobin (p = 4.8 × 10(-7)), red blood cell count (p = 2.5 × 10(-6)), hematocrit (p = 3.0 × 10(-6)), total cholesterol (p = 5.8 × 10(-5)), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.0015), and decreased triglycerides (p = 1.3 × 10(-4)), bicarbonate (p = 3.9 × 10(-4)), and weight (p = 1.0 × 10(-7)), compared to a day of usual eating. For those randomized to fast the first day (n = 16), most factors including human growth hormone and cholesterol returned to baseline after the full 48 h, with the exception of weight (p = 2.5 × 10(-4)) and (suggestively significant) triglycerides (p = 0.028). CONCLUSION: Fasting induced acute changes in biomarkers of metabolic, cardiovascular, and general health. The long-term consequences of these short-term changes are unknown but repeated episodes of periodic short-term fasting should be evaluated as a preventive treatment with the potential to reduce metabolic disease risk. Clinical trial registration (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT01059760 (Expression of Longevity Genes in Response to Extended Fasting [The Fasting and Expression of Longevity Genes during Food abstinence {FEELGOOD} Trial]).

Concepts: Cholesterol, Hemoglobin, Evolution, Blood, Atherosclerosis, Coronary artery disease, Red blood cell, Growth hormone