SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD

189

To evaluate the relationship of diet to incident diabetes among non-Black and Black participants in the Adventist Health Study-2.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Nutrition, Diets

28

AIMS: To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement definition. The “Green Water” dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of rice and vegetables and moderate intakes in animal foods was related to the lowest prevalence of MS (15.9%). Compared to the “Green Water” dietary pattern, the “Yellow Earth” dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of refined cereal products, tubers, cooking salt and salted vegetable was associated with a significantly elevated odds of MS (odds ratio 1.66, 95%CI: 1.40-1.96), after adjustment of age, sex, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. The “Western/new affluence” dietary pattern characterized by higher consumption of beef/lamb, fruit, eggs, poultry and seafood also significantly associated with MS (odds ratio: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.13-1.67). Physical activity showed significant interactions with the dietary patterns in relation to MS risk (P for interaction = 0.008). In the joint analysis, participants with the combination of sedentary activity with the “Yellow Earth” dietary pattern or the “Western/new affluence” dietary pattern both had more than three times (95%CI: 2.8-6.1) higher odds of MS than those with active activity and the “Green Water” dietary pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings from the large Chinese national representative data indicate that dietary patterns affect the likelihood of MS. Combining healthy dietary pattern with active lifestyle may benefit more in prevention of MS.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Cereal, Pattern, Vegetable, Personal life, Salt, Lifestyle

27

Advanced glycation end products (AGE) excess is one of the most important mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of chronic diabetic complications. This review first summarizes the role of these compounds in microvascular pathogenesis, particularly in the light of recently proposed biochemical mechanisms for diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Then we focus on the relationship between AGE and metabolic memory, trying to clarify the former’s role in the missing link between micro- and macrovascular complications.

Concepts: Nutrition, Diabetes mellitus, Niacin, Diabetes, Blood sugar, Diabetic retinopathy, Glycated hemoglobin, Hyperglycemia

25

Over the last 7 years there has been intense debate about the advice to reduce saturated fat and increase polyunsaturated fat to reduce CVD risk. The aim of this review was to examine systematic reviews and meta-analyses since 2010 on this topic plus additional cohort studies and interventions not included in these reviews.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Nutrition, Systematic review, Meta-analysis, Saturated fat, Trans fat, Unsaturated fat, Polyunsaturated fat

22

The early onset of cardio-metabolic abnormalities, known as metabolically unhealthy (MU) status, is highly associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as with increased morbidity and mortality later in life. Given the lack of a consensus MU classification for prepubertal children, we aimed to compare available MU definitions in terms of their association with CVD risk biomarkers.

22

A large evidence-based review on the effects of a moderate consumption of beer on human health has been conducted by an international panel of experts who reached a full consensus on the present document. Low-moderate (up to 1 drink per day in women, up to 2 in men), non-bingeing beer consumption, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. This effect is similar to that of wine, at comparable alcohol amounts. Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate consumption of either beer or wine may confer greater cardiovascular protection than spirits. Although specific data on beer are not conclusive, observational studies seem to indicate that low-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of developing neurodegenerative disease. There is no evidence that beer drinking is different from other types of alcoholic beverages in respect to risk for some cancers. Evidence consistently suggests a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption (including beer) and all-cause mortality, with lower risk for moderate alcohol consumers than for abstainers or heavy drinkers. Unless they are at high risk for alcohol-related cancers or alcohol dependency, there is no reason to discourage healthy adults who are already regular light-moderate beer consumers from continuing. Consumption of beer, at any dosage, is not recommended for children, adolescents, pregnant women, individuals at risk to develop alcoholism, those with cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, depression, liver and pancreatic diseases, or anyone engaged in actions that require concentration, skill or coordination. In conclusion, although heavy and excessive beer consumption exerts deleterious effects on the human body, with increased disease risks on many organs and is associated to significant social problems such as addiction, accidents, violence and crime, data reported in this document show evidence for no harm of moderate beer consumption for major chronic conditions and some benefit against cardiovascular disease.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Disease, Infectious disease, Alcoholism, Alcoholic beverage, Beer, Drinking culture

20

19

Interest in vegetarian diets is growing in Italy and elsewhere, as government agencies and health/nutrition organizations are emphasizing that regular consumption of plant foods may provide health benefits and help prevent certain diseases.

Concepts: Health, Nutrition, Renaissance, Democracy, Health sciences

12

The prevalence of obesity is continually increasing worldwide. Determining risk factors for obesity may facilitate effective preventive programs. The present review focuses on sleep duration as a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. The aim is to summarize the evidence on the association of sleep duration and obesity and to discuss the underlying potential physiological and/or pathophysiological mechanisms.

Concepts: Time, Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Risk, The Canon of Medicine, Avicenna

10

Long-term adherence to conventional weight-loss diets is limited while intermittent fasting has risen in popularity. We compared the effects of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity and ≥1 additional component of metabolic syndrome.