SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)

376

The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications, in combination with the continued success of low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome without significant side effects, point to the need for a reappraisal of dietary guidelines. The benefits of carbohydrate restriction in diabetes are immediate and well documented. Concerns about the efficacy and safety are long term and conjectural rather than data driven. Dietary carbohydrate restriction reliably reduces high blood glucose, does not require weight loss (although is still best for weight loss), and leads to the reduction or elimination of medication. It has never shown side effects comparable with those seen in many drugs. Here we present 12 points of evidence supporting the use of low-carbohydrate diets as the first approach to treating type 2 diabetes and as the most effective adjunct to pharmacology in type 1. They represent the best-documented, least controversial results. The insistence on long-term randomized controlled trials as the only kind of data that will be accepted is without precedent in science. The seriousness of diabetes requires that we evaluate all of the evidence that is available. The 12 points are sufficiently compelling that we feel that the burden of proof rests with those who are opposed.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Nutrition, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, The Canon of Medicine, Obesity, Randomized controlled trial, Carbohydrate

166

Pressure ulcers (PU) represent a widespread, painful, and expensive health care problem directly associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PU in hospitalised patients in public and private Brazilian institutions and the ulcers' associations with nutritional status and other risk factors.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Health insurance, Health, Epidemiology, Patient, Hospital, Medical statistics

47

There is a substantial interest in the potential role of chocolate in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It has been recently reported that a higher frequency of chocolate intake is linked to lower body mass index (BMI) in adults. The aim of the present study was to determine if higher chocolate consumption also is associated with lower BMI, as well as other markers of total and central body fat, in adolescents.

Concepts: Cancer, Nutrition, Energy, Obesity, Mass, Adipose tissue, Body mass index, Body shape

28

Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), are common legumes, consumed worldwide. The delicacy of kidney beans is highly appreciable but, at the same time, their toxicity has raised an alarming concern. Kidney bean toxicity may be divided into two subcategories: toxicity caused by its lectins, saponins, phytates, and protease inhibitors or allergenicity induced by its allergenic proteins. The purpose of this review is to unravel the facts behind the different aspects of toxicity and allergenicity induced by kidney beans and try to fill the gaps that exist currently.

Concepts: Pulse, Fabaceae, Legume, Common bean, Bean, Phaseolus, Phaseoleae, Three Sisters

28

We investigated whether a reduced iso-α acid derived from an extract of Humulus lupulus L., META060, had an effect on weight gain, body composition, and metabolism in a high-fat-diet (HFD) fed mouse model.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Insulin resistance, Metabolic syndrome, Humulus lupulus

28

The aim of the present research was to show the characteristics of body composition in a sample of elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with healthy controls matched by age and body mass index (BMI) by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis.

Concepts: Nutrition, Death, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Obesity, Mass, Body mass index, Body shape, Graphic design

28

The objectives of the present study were to identify the association among levels of persistent academic stress, appetite, and dietary habits and to determine the specific types of sweet foods consumed by Korean high-school students according to their academic stress levels.

Concepts: Nutrition, Eating, Food, Seafood, Food and drink

28

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake is associated with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). METHODS: Data from 1227 Chinese subjects who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study were analyzed. All the participants were examined at two time points (baseline in 2002 and follow-up in 2007). The MSG intake was assessed quantitatively in 2002 and a sleep questionnaire was used to assess snoring and to construct an SDB probability score in 2007. Those within the fifth quintile of the score (highest) were defined as having a high probability of SDB. RESULTS: The MSG intake was positively associated with snoring and a high probability of SDB in participants who had a normal body weight but in those who were overweight. A comparison of the extreme quartiles of MSG intake in subjects with a body mass index lower than 23 kg/m(2) showed an odds ratio of 2.02 (95% confidence interval 1.02-4.00) for snoring and an odds ratio of 3.11 (95% confidence interval 1.10-8.84) for a high probability of SDB. There was a joint effect between MSG and overweight in relation to SDB. CONCLUSION: The intake of MSG may increase the risk of SDB in Chinese adults with a normal body weight.

Concepts: Obesity, Mass, Body mass index, Glutamic acid, Excitotoxicity, Body shape, Monosodium glutamate, Umami

27

The aim of this study was to assess the association between melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) rs17782313 alleles with obesity and eating behavior scores in Chilean children.

Concepts: The Association, Melanocortin 4 receptor

27

OBJECTIVE: Pantothenic acid (PaA) is a vitamin that is an integral part of coenzyme A (CoA). CoA is an essential coenzyme in fat metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether PaA deficiency causes the accumulation of tissue fats and, if so, can refeeding of PaA decrease such accumulated fat. METHODS: Weaning rats were fed the PaA-free diet for 30 d. Rats were then divided into two groups. One group was continuously fed the PaA-free diet, and the other was fed the PaA-containing diet for an additional 13 d. At the end of the experiment, liver fat and perinephric fat were weighed, and plasma triglyceride levels measured. An additional similar experiment was conducted in which rats consumed 15% ethanol instead of water. RESULTS: Fat that accumulated by consuming the PaA-free diet for 30 d was decreased by consuming the PaA-containing diet for an additional 13 d. Ethanol feeding elicited much greater accumulation of liver, perinephric, and plasma fats if rats were fed the PaA-free diet. In such cases, administration of PaA could decrease the accumulated fat. CONCLUSION: PaA deficiency causes fat accumulation, and readministration of PaA decreases the tissue fat in rats fed the pantothenic acid-free diet. Ethanol accelerated the accumulation of fat in rats fed the PaA-free diet. PaA could be beneficial for decreasing accumulated tissue fat.

Concepts: Metabolism, Nutrition, Triglyceride, Fat, Vitamin, Coenzyme A, Glycerol, Pantothenic acid