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Journal: Nursing & health sciences


Knowledge of and attitudes towards dysmenorrhea among adolescent school girls were assessed in this study. A descriptive study was conducted among 200 Year 12 girls at a school in the Nugegoda Educational Division in the district of Colombo. Data collection was done by using non-probability convenience sampling. The results indicated that 84% of the study population had dysmenorrhea. Paracetamol was the drug of choice for pain relief. There was a statistically-significant (P < 0.05) association between pain and poor mental health status (66%) of the adolescent girls, but there was no significant association between pain and poor physical health (P = 0.887) and poor social health status (P = 0.395). Bathing was found to affect pain, as reported by 95% of the students. Dysmenorrhea was common among adolescent girls in our study population, and was found to affect their mental status. Health-education sessions are important to raise awareness among students of dysmenorrhea.

Concepts: Health care, Epidemiology, Sampling, Education, Sri Lanka, Personal life, Hygiene, Colombo


Migration has been associated with a greater vulnerability in health. Migrants, especially women, go through several experiences during the migration process and in the host countries that ultimately put their health at risk. This study examines self-reported health status and preventive behaviors among female and male immigrants in Portugal, and identifies sociodemographic and behavioral factors underlying gender differences. A sample of 1375 immigrants (51.1% women) was studied. Data were analyzed through logistic regression. Good health status was reported by 66.7% of men and by 56.6% of women (P < 0.001). Gender differences were also found across preventative behaviors. Among women and men, reported good health was associated with younger age, African and Brazilian origin (compared to Eastern European), secondary/higher education, no chronic disease, and concern about eating habits. Among women, good health was also associated with perceived sufficient income, no experience of mental illness, and regular physical exercise. When developing health programs to improve immigrants' health, special attention must be given to existing gender inequalities, and socioeconomic and cultural context, in accordance with their experience of living in the host country over time.

Concepts: Psychology, Male, Female, Exercise, Gender, Sociology, Gender role, Human behavior


The Mount Merapi volcanic eruption in October 2010 was one of Indonesia’s largest and most recent natural disasters. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to measure the psychosocial impact of the eruption on survivors in two locations in Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia. The Impact of Event Scale Revised was used to assess participants' symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder responses and demographic characteristics were compared in both locations by conducting bivariate analysis using Mann-Whitney and t tests. The relative contributions of demographic variables and psychosocial impact were examined using multiple linear regression analyses. Two years after the eruption, survivors from the area closest to the eruption had significantly higher Impact of Event Scale Revised scores than those in the comparison area. In particular, females, adults between the ages of 18 and 59, and people who owned their own home experienced the highest levels of psychosocial impact. Nurses and other health professionals need to be aware of the impact of natural disasters on survivors and develop interventions to help people adjust to the psychosocial impact of these events.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Linear regression, Volcano, Central Java, Pacific Ring of Fire, Decade Volcanoes, Lava dome, Mount Merapi


Although in recent decades reforms to undergraduate nursing and midwifery education have increasingly been guided by the concept of competency-based curriculum in a drive to produce competent graduates in the African context, the topic remains poorly researched in-depth. The related issues and challenges need to be explored in the interest of evidence-based practice. This article stems from a systematic review of qualitative literature on the design and implementation of competency-based curriculum. Data was inductively analyzed using constant comparison. The two categories that emerged were: (i) the need for a paradigm shift to competency-based curriculum; and (ii) the associated issues and challenges, such as a shift from informative to transformative learning, lack or limited of involvement of key stakeholders in curriculum development, focus on hospital-oriented education, lack of preparation of educators, and inappropriate resources. While ongoing reform of nursing and midwifery education continues, much still needs to be done - in particular, extensive financial investment to increase the capacity of educators, mentors and infrastructure, and the development of collaborative frameworks between nursing and midwifery and higher educational councils.

Concepts: Psychology, Africa, Education, Educational psychology, Investment, Higher education, Curriculum, Curriculum studies


In this study, we described the profile of advanced nursing practice in Spain. A cross-sectional study design was used to explore the extent and patterns of advanced nursing practice activity within the domains of expert care planning, integrated care, interprofessional collaboration, education, research, evidence-based practice, and professional leadership. Data were collected in 2015/2016. Purposive sampling yielded a sample of 165 specialist and expert nurses employed by a dual tertiary and community hospital in an urban setting. The study included specialist and expert nurses who had a higher practice profile than registered general nurses. The performance of activities according to age, current position, years of experience, nursing grade, and education was compared. Practice domains were more strongly influenced by the predictors of nursing position and professional career ladder. Age and experience predictors were found to be weak predictors of advanced practice domains. This study offers essential information of the nursing workforce, and clarifies both the advanced nursing practice profile and nomenclature in the context of study.

Concepts: Cross-sectional study, Nursing, Nurse


This study was conducted to determine and compare the effectiveness of nature sounds and relaxation exercises for reducing preoperative anxiety. A repeated measures randomized controlled trial design was used. We divided 159 preoperative patients into three groups: nature sounds (n = 53), relaxation exercises (n = 53), and control groups (n = 53). We evaluated anxiety using the visual analog scale and state anxiety inventory scores immediately before, immediately after, and 30 min after interventions in nature sounds and relaxation exercises groups, and silent rest in the control. We found no differences between the measurement values in the intervention groups, but we did observe a difference between the intervention and control groups. The two interventions were similarly effective in reducing preoperative anxiety. These simple and low-cost interventions can be used to reduce preoperative anxiety in surgical clinics.

Concepts: Scientific method, Experimental design, Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Effectiveness, Difference, Efficacy, Control


Qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis are two commonly used approaches in data analysis of nursing research, but boundaries between the two have not been clearly specified. In other words, they are being used interchangeably and it seems difficult for the researcher to choose between them. In this respect, this paper describes and discusses the boundaries between qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis and presents implications to improve the consistency between the purpose of related studies and the method of data analyses. This is a discussion paper, comprising an analytical overview and discussion of the definitions, aims, philosophical background, data gathering, and analysis of content analysis and thematic analysis, and addressing their methodological subtleties. It is concluded that in spite of many similarities between the approaches, including cutting across data and searching for patterns and themes, their main difference lies in the opportunity for quantification of data. It means that measuring the frequency of different categories and themes is possible in content analysis with caution as a proxy for significance.

Concepts: Scientific method, Greek loanwords, Data analysis, Difference, Logic, Analysis, Content analysis, Theme


Communications media that fails to present information supported by evidence-based practice has the potential to adversely influence knowledge and, ultimately, behaviors. We assessed the immediate effect of a health science documentary on knowledge, attitude, and beliefs among collegiate health sciences students enrolled in an entry-level nutrition course using surveys administered online. Participants (n=160) completed the pre-survey, watched the documentary What the Health, and immediately completed the post-survey in one setting. Compared with pre-survey scores, participants reported a significant decrease in knowledge, change in attitude to health toward regulation of animal products, and increased agreement with all seven, pre-selected contradictory health claims presented in the documentary. Post-documentary, most participants reported they were planning to make a change in their dietary habits to reflect a plant-based diet. Documentaries providing health information contradictory to the current body of scientific literature are persuasive and can potentially increase negative health behaviors. Inclusion of practices within the health curriculum that encourage, and ultimately, improve health literacy among students before entering the health care workforce is essential.


This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the incidence, and preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative risk factors for postoperative delirium in older patients undergoing surgical fixation of a hip fracture. Electronic medical records were examined of 260 patients who underwent a surgical fixation of a hip fracture between June 2017 and October 2018 at a university-affiliated tertiary care hospital in Victoria, Australia. Demographic, clinical and perioperative data were examined for potential risk factors for postoperative delirium. Of the 260 patients, 63 patients (24.2%) developed delirium postoperatively. Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that advanced age, comorbidity, cognitive impairment, dementia, American Society of Anaesthesiologist score, antipsychotic usage were significant risk factors for delirium while doses of paracetamol, fentanyl and diazepam showed complex associations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined comorbidity and cognitive impairment as independent risk factors for the development of delirium. This study demonstrates the importance of evaluation of medications prescribed in the perioperative period as modifiable risk factors, in order to identify patients at high risk of delirium and enable targeted monitoring and treatment during patients' hospitalisation.


The major objective of this study was to investigate how smoking behavior mediates the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms in adolescents. A descriptive correlational study was conducted from February to June 2017 at a vocational high school in northern Taiwan, and 226 students were recruited through convenience sampling. Results indicated that smoking behavior played a pivotal role by partially mediating the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms in adolescents. Life stress in adolescents significantly increased the risk of experiencing depressive symptoms, and adolescents who smoked were also at a greater risk. Assessments between the objective and self-reported smoking behavior were significantly correlated. Therefore, integrated methods for assessing life stress, smoking behavior, and depressive symptoms in adolescents are needed for teachers and clinical professionals. Implementing appropriate policies for discouraging tobacco use for adolescents experiencing life stress in order to decrease depressive symptoms in school settings is paramount. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.