SciCombinator

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Journal: NPJ vaccines

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Live herpesvirus-vectored vaccines are widely used in veterinary medicine to protect against many infectious diseases. In poultry, three strains of herpesvirus vaccines are used against Marek’s disease (MD). However, of these, only the herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully developed and used as a recombinant vaccine vector to induce protection against other avian viral diseases such as infectious bursal disease (IBD), Newcastle disease (ND) or avian influenza (AI). Although effective when administered individually, recombinant HVT vectors have limitations when combined in multivalent vaccines. Thus there is a need for developing additional viral vectors that could be combined with HVT in inducing protection against multiple avian diseases in multivalent vaccines. Gallid herpesvirus 3 (GaHV3) strain SB-1 is widely used by the poultry industry as bivalent vaccine in combination with HVT to exploit synergistic effects against MD. Here, we report the development and application of SB-1 as a vaccine vector to express the VP2 capsid antigen of IBD virus. A VP2 expression cassette was introduced into the SB-1 genome at three intergenic locations (UL3/UL4, UL10/UL11 and UL21/UL22) using recombineering methods on the full-length pSB-1 infectious clone of the virus. We show that the recombinant SB-1 vectors expressing VP2 induced neutralising antibody responses at levels comparable to that of commercial HVT-based VAXXITEKHVT+IBD vaccine. Birds vaccinated with the experimental recombinant SB-1 vaccine were protected against clinical disease after challenge with the very virulent UK661 IBDV isolate, demonstrating its value as an efficient viral vector for developing multivalent vaccines against avian diseases.

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Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is recommended for adults with chronic disease. Extensive limb swelling (ELS) is an acute vigorous local inflammatory reaction following vaccination. Predisposing immune system correlates and the influence of ELS on vaccine responses are not known. Here, we report a case of a 67-year-old woman with a history of multiple pneumonias who had a detailed immunological work-up pre-vaccination because of suspected immunodeficiency. Four days following a first vaccination with PCV13 she developed ELS-mimicking erysipelas. Treatment with 20 mg cortisone completely alleviated symptoms within 2 days. Skin biopsy showed a dense dermal and subdermal infiltration dominated by CD4+ T cells and macrophages. In a multiplexed serotype-specific measurement of the anti-pneumococcal IgG response, the patient showed very broad and strong vaccine responses. Pre-vaccination titers were low for the vaccine serotypes. We did not find in vivo nor in vitro evidence of an excessive T cell response to the diphtheria-derived PCV carrier protein. However, we could demonstrate a high antibody titer to a non-vaccine serotype, indicating in vivo pre-exposure to pneumococcus bacteria. Thus, traces of pneumococcal proteins included in PCV13 may have boosted pre-existing pneumococcus-specific T helper cells, which subsequently orchestrated ELS. Our case raises awareness for the risk of vaccine-induced ELS, especially in patients with a history of recurrent pneumococcal disease and thus partial immunity.

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Antigenic diversity of the M protein is a major constraint to the development of immunity to group A streptococcus (GAS). We demonstrate that a conserved cryptic epitope that is unrecognized by the host immune system following infection can protect mice following vaccination, and that immunity is strengthened and broadened following successive infections. The observation that infection can boost and broaden, but cannot prime immunity to a cryptic epitope, may be exploited for vaccines for other pathogens.

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Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is the feline analogue to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and utilizes parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry. The FIV surface glycoprotein (SU) is an important target for induction of neutralizing antibodies, and autoantibodies to the FIV binding receptor (CD134) block infection ex vivo; thus highlighting the potential for immunotherapies which utilize anti-receptor antibodies to block viral infection. To determine whether vaccination with CD134-SU complexes could induce protection against FIV infection, cats (n = 5 per group) were immunized with soluble CD134, recombinant FIV-SU protein, and/or CD134+SU complexes. Two trials were performed with different antigen combinations and vaccination schedules. In vivo generation of anti-CD134 and anti-SU IgG antibodies was measured, and in vitro neutralization assays were conducted. Immunization induced production of anti-CD134 and anti-SU antibodies that significantly inhibited FIV infection in vitro. However, no vaccine combination protected cats from FIV infection, and neat serum from vaccinated cats enhanced FIV growth in vitro. CD134+SU vaccinated cats exhibited increased CD4:CD8 ratio immediately prior to challenge, and antibodies were much more efficiently generated against vaccine by-products versus target antigens. Results suggest vaccination against viral and cryptic receptor epitopes yields neutralizing antibodies that synergistically inhibit FIV infection in vitro. Factors contributing to vaccine failure may include: (1) Heat-labile serum factors that enhance viral replication, (2) changes in circulating target cell populations induced by vaccination, and (3) weak immunogenicity of neutralizing epitopes compared to off-target vaccine components. Results reinforce the need to monitor vaccine preparation components and avoid non-specific immune stimulation during vaccination.

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Rift Valley fever virus, a phlebovirus endemic in Africa, causes serious diseases in ruminants and humans. Due to the high probability of new outbreaks and spread to other continents where competent vectors are present, vaccine development is an urgent priority as no licensed vaccines are available outside areas of endemicity. In this study, we evaluated in sheep the protective immunity induced by DNA vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the Gn antigen which was either or not targeted to antigen-presenting cells. The DNA encoding untargeted antigen was the most potent at inducing IgG responses, although not neutralizing, and conferred a significant clinical and virological protection upon infectious challenge, superior to DNA vaccines encoding the targeted antigen. A statistical analysis of the challenge parameters supported that the anti-eGn IgG, rather than the T-cell response, was instrumental in protection. Altogether, this work shows that a DNA vaccine encoding the extracellular portion of the Gn antigen confers substantial-although incomplete-protective immunity in sheep, a natural host with high preclinical relevance, and provides some insights into key immune correlates useful for further vaccine improvements against the Rift Valley fever virus.

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This study demonstrates that the fate of a vaccine is influenced by the cytokines produced by the innate lymphoid cells (ILC) recruited to the vaccination site, and it is vaccine route and adjuvant dependent. Intranasal virus vaccination induced ST2/IL-33R+ ILC2 in lung, while intramuscular vaccination induced exclusively IL-25R+ ILC2 in muscle. Interestingly, a larger proportion of IL-13+ ILC2s were detected in muscle following i.m. viral vector vaccination compared to lung post i.n. delivery. These observations revealed that ILC2 were the main source of IL-13 at the vaccination site (24 h post vaccination) responsible for inducing T cells of varying avidities. Moreover, recombinant fowlpox viral vector-based vaccines expressing adjuvants that transiently block IL-13 signalling at the vaccination site using different mechanisms (IL-4R antagonist or IL-13Rα2 adjuvants), revealed that the level of IL-13 present in the milieu also significantly influenced IFN-γ, IL-22 or IL-17A expression by ILC1/ILC3. Specifically, an early IL-13 and IFN-γ co-dependency at the ILC level may also be associated with shaping the downstream antibody responses, supporting the notion that differentially regulating IL-13 signalling via STAT6 or IL-13Rα2 pathways can modify ILC function and the resulting adaptive T- and B-cell immune outcomes reported previously. Moreover, unlike chronic inflammatory or experimentally induced conditions, viral vector vaccination induced uniquely different ILC profiles (i.e., expression of CD127 only on ILC2 not ILC1/ILC3; expression of IFN-γ in both NKP46+ and NKp46- ILCs). Collectively, our data highlight that tailoring a vaccine vector/adjuvant to modulate the ILC cytokine profile according to the target pathogen, may help design more efficacious vaccines in the future.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, DNA, Cytokine, Vaccine, Vaccination, Immunologic adjuvant

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Enteric fever, mainly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, remains a common and serious infectious disease worldwide. As yet, there are no licensed vaccines against S. Paratyphi A. Biosynthesis of conjugate vaccines has become a promising approach against bacterial infection. However, the popular biosynthetic strategy using N-linked glycosylation systems does not recognize the specialized O-polysaccharide structure of S. Paratyphi A. Here, we describe an O-linked glycosylation approach, the only currently available glycosylation system suitable for an S. Paratyphi A conjugate vaccine. We successfully generated a recombinant S. Paratyphi A strain with a longer O-polysaccharide chain and transformed the O-linked glycosylation system into the strain. Thus, we avoided the need for construction of an O-polysaccharide expression vector. In vivo assays indicated that this conjugate vaccine could evoke IgG1 antibody to O-antigen of S. Paratyphi A strain CMCC 50973 and elicit bactericidal activity against S. Paratyphi A strain CMCC 50973 and five other epidemic strains. Furthermore, we replaced the peptides after the glycosylation site (Ser) with an antigenic peptide (P2). The results showed that the anti-lipopolysaccharide antibody titer, bactericidal activity of serum, and protective effect during animal challenge could be improved, indicating a potential strategy for further vaccine design. Our system provides an easier and more economical method for the production of S. Paratyphi A conjugate vaccines. Modification of the glycosylation site sequon provides a potential approach for the development of next-generation “precise conjugate vaccines.”

Concepts: Immune system, Infectious disease, Microbiology, Infection, Influenza, Glycosylation, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella