Journal: NPJ vaccines
Mycobacterium are among the oldest co-evolutionary partners of humans. The attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) strain has been administered globally for 100 years as a vaccine against tuberculosis. BCG also shows promise as treatment for numerous inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Here, we report on a randomized 8-year long prospective examination of type 1 diabetic subjects with long-term disease who received two doses of the BCG vaccine. After year 3, BCG lowered hemoglobin A1c to near normal levels for the next 5 years. The BCG impact on blood sugars appeared to be driven by a novel systemic and blood sugar lowering mechanism in diabetes. We observe a systemic shift in glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, a state of high glucose utilization. Confirmation is gained by metabolomics, mRNAseq, and functional assays of cellular glucose uptake after BCG vaccinations. To prove BCG could induce a systemic change to promote accelerated glucose utilization and impact blood sugars, murine data demonstrated reduced blood sugars and aerobic induction in non-autoimmune mice made chemically diabetic. BCG via epigenetics also resets six central T-regulatory genes for genetic re-programming of tolerance. These findings set the stage for further testing of a known safe vaccine therapy for improved blood sugar control through changes in metabolism and durability with epigenetic changes even in advanced Type 1 diabetes.
Seasonal vaccines are currently the most effective countermeasure against influenza. However, seasonal vaccines are only effective against strains closely related to the influenza strains contained in the vaccine. Recently a new hemagglutinin (HA) stem-based antigen, the so-called “mini-HA”, has been shown to induce a cross-protective immune response in influenza-naive mice and non-human primates (NHP). However, prior exposure to influenza can have a profound effect on the immune response to subsequent influenza infection and the protective efficacy of vaccination. Here we show that mini-HA, compared to a trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV), elicits a broadened influenza-specific humoral immune response in NHP previously exposed to influenza. Serum transfer experiments showed that antibodies induced by both mini-HA and seasonal vaccine protected mice against lethal challenge with a H1N1 influenza strain heterologous to the H1 HA included in the TIV. However, antibodies elicited by mini-HA showed an additional benefit of protecting mice against lethal heterosubtypic H5N1 influenza challenge, associated with H5 HA-specific functional antibodies.
Sustained elimination of leprosy as a global health concern likely requires a vaccine. The current standard, BCG, confers only partial protection and precipitates paucibacillary (PB) disease in some instances. When injected into mice with the T helper 1 (Th1)-biasing adjuvant formulation Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant in stable emulsion (GLA-SE), a cocktail of three prioritized antigens (ML2055, ML2380 and ML2028) reducedM. lepraeinfection levels. Recognition and protective efficacy of a single chimeric fusion protein incorporating these antigens, LEP-F1, was confirmed in similar experiments. The impact of post-exposure immunization was then assessed in nine-banded armadillos that demonstrate a functional recapitulation of leprosy. Armadillos were infected withM. leprae1 month before the initiation of post-exposure prophylaxis. While BCG precipitated motor nerve conduction abnormalities more rapidly and severely than observed for control infected armadillos, motor nerve injury in armadillos treated three times, at monthly intervals with LepVax was appreciably delayed. Biopsy of cutaneous nerves indicated that epidermal nerve fiber density was not significantly altered inM. leprae-infected animals although Remak Schwann cells of the cutaneous nerves in the distal leg were denser in the infected armadillos. Importantly, LepVax immunization did not exacerbate cutaneous nerve involvement due toM. lepraeinfection, indicating its safe use. There was no intraneural inflammation but a reduction of intra axonal edema suggested that LepVax treatment might restore some early sensory axonal function. These data indicate that post-exposure prophylaxis with LepVax not only appears safe but, unlike BCG, alleviates and delays the neurologic disruptions caused byM. lepraeinfection.
Lassa fever (LF) is a zoonotic disease associated with acute and potentially fatal hemorrhagic illness caused by the Lassa virus (LASV), a member of the familyArenaviridae. It is generally assumed that a single infection with LASV will produce life-long protective immunity. This suggests that protective immunity induced by vaccination is an achievable goal and that cell-mediated immunity may play a more important role in protection, at least following natural infection. Seropositive individuals in endemic regions have been shown to have LASV-specific T cells recognizing epitopes for nucleocapsid protein (NP) and glycoprotein precursor (GPC), suggesting that these will be important vaccine immunogens. The role of neutralizing antibodies in protective immunity is still equivocal as recent studies suggest a role for neutralizing antibodies. There is extensive genetic heterogeneity among LASV strains that is of concern in the development of assays to detect and identify all four LASV lineages. Furthermore, the gene disparity may complicate the synthesis of effective vaccines that will provide protection across multiple lineages. Non-human primate models of LASV infection are considered the gold standard for recapitulation of human LF. The most promising vaccine candidates to date are the ML29 (a live attenuated reassortant of Mopeia and LASV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and vaccinia-vectored platforms based on their ability to induce protection following single doses, high rates of survival following challenge, and the use of live virus platforms. To date no LASV vaccine candidates have undergone clinical evaluation.
With increasing age, as the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease is increasing, finding a therapeutic intervention is becoming critically important to either prevent or slow down the progression of the disease. Passive immunotherapy has been demonstrated as a successful way of reducing large aggregates and improving cognition in animal models of both tauopathies and Alzheimer’s disease. However, with all the continuous attempts and significant success of immunotherapy in preclinical studies, finding a successful clinical therapy has been a great challenge, possibly indicating a lack of accuracy in targeting the toxic species. Both active and passive immunotherapy approaches in transgenic animals have been demonstrated to have pros and cons. Passive immunotherapy has been favored and many mechanisms have been shown to clear toxic amyloid and tau aggregates and improve memory. These mechanisms may differ depending on the antibodie’s' target and administration route. In this regard, deciding on affinity vs. specificity of the antibodies plays a significant role in terms of avoiding the clearance of the physiological forms of the targeted proteins and reducing adverse side effects. In addition, knowing that a single protein can exist in different conformational states, termed as strains, with varying degrees of neurotoxicity and seeding properties, presents an additional level of complexity. Therefore, immunotherapy targeting specifically the toxic strains will aid in developing potential strategies for intervention. Moreover, an approach of combinatorial immunotherapies against different amyloidogenic proteins, at distinct levels of the disease progression, might offer an effective therapy in many neurodegenerative diseases.
Vaccination is the mainstay of preventative medicine for many infectious diseases. Pregnant women, unborn fetuses, and neonates represent three at-risk populations that can be simultaneously protected by strategic vaccination protocols. Because the pathogenesis of different infectious microbes varies based on tissue tropism, timing of infection, and host susceptibility, the goals of immunization are not uniform across all vaccines. Mechanistic understanding of infectious disease pathogenesis and immune responses is therefore essential to inform vaccine design and the implementation of appropriate immunization protocols that optimize protection of pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.
Transmission-blocking vaccines are based on eliciting antibody responses in the vertebrate host that disrupt parasite development in the mosquito vector and prevent malaria transmission. The surface protein Pfs47 is present in Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and female gametes. The potential of Pfs47 as a vaccine target was evaluated. Soluble full-length recombinant protein, consisting of three domains, was expressed in E. coli as a thioredoxin fusion (T-Pfs47). The protein was immunogenic, and polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were obtained, but they did not confer transmission blocking activity (TBA). All fourteen mAb targeted either domains 1 or 3, but not domain 2 (D2), and immune reactivity to D2 was also very low in polyclonal mouse IgG after T-Pfs47 immunization. Disruption of the predicted disulfide bond in D2, by replacing cysteines for alanines (C230A and C260A), allowed expression of recombinant D2 protein in E. coli. A combination of mAbs targeting D2, and deletion proteins from this domain, allowed us to map a central 52 amino acid (aa) region where antibody binding confers strong TBA (78-99%). This 52 aa antigen is immunogenic and well conserved, with only seven haplotypes world-wide that share 96-98% identity. Neither human complement nor the mosquito complement-like system are required for the observed TBA. A dramatic reduction in ookinete numbers and ookinete-specific transcripts was observed, suggesting that the antibodies are interacting with female gametocytes and preventing fertilization.
The oil-in-water emulsion Adjuvant System 03 (AS03) is one of the few adjuvants used in licensed vaccines. Previous work indicates that AS03 induces a local and transient inflammatory response that contributes to its adjuvant effect. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in its immunostimulatory properties are ill-defined. Upon intramuscular injection in mice, AS03 elicited a rapid and transient downregulation of lipid metabolism-related genes in the draining lymph node. In vitro, these modifications were associated with profound changes in lipid composition, alteration of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) morphology and activation of the unfolded protein response pathway. In vivo, treatment with a chemical chaperone or deletion of the ER stress sensor kinase IRE1α in myeloid cells decreased AS03-induced cytokine production and its capacity to elicit high affinity antigen-specific antibodies. In summary, our results indicate that IRE1α is a sensor for the metabolic changes induced by AS03 in monocytic cells and may constitute a canonical pathway that could be exploited for the design of novel vaccine adjuvants.
Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is the third leading cause of parasitic mortality globally, with some 100,000 deaths annually, primarily among young children. Protective immunity to amebiasis is associated with fecal IgA and IFN-γ in humans; however, no vaccine exists. We have previously identified recombinant LecA as a potential protective vaccine antigen. Here we describe the development of a stable, manufacturable PEGylated liposomal adjuvant formulation containing two synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands: GLA (TLR4) and 3M-052 (TLR7/8). The liposomes stimulated production of monocyte/macrophage chemoattractants MCP-1 and Mip-1β, and Th1-associated cytokines IL-12p70 and IFN-γ from human whole blood dependent on TLR ligand composition and dose. The liposomes also demonstrated acceptable physicochemical compatibility with the recombinant LecA antigen. Whereas mice immunized with LecA and GLA-liposomes demonstrated enhanced antigen-specific fecal IgA titers, mice immunized with LecA and 3M-052-liposomes showed a stronger Th1 immune profile. Liposomes containing GLA and 3M-052 together elicited both LecA-specific fecal IgA and Th1 immune responses. Furthermore, the quality of the immune response could be modulated with modifications to the liposomal formulation based on PEG length. Compared to subcutaneous administration, the optimized liposome adjuvant composition with LecA antigen administered intranasally resulted in significantly enhanced fecal IgA, serum IgG2a, as well as systemic IFN-γ and IL-17A levels in mice. The optimized intranasal regimen provided greater than 80% protection from disease as measured by parasite antigen in the colon. This work demonstrates the physicochemical and immunological characterization of an optimized mucosal adjuvant system containing a combination of TLR ligands with complementary activities and illustrates the importance of adjuvant composition and route of delivery to enhance a multifaceted and protective immune response to amebiasis.
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, was first identified in the 1940s in Uganda in Africa and emerged in the Americas in Brazil in May 2015. In the 30 months since ZIKV emerged as a major public health problem, spectacular progress has been made with vaccine development cumulating with the publication of three reports of phase 1 clinical trials in the 4th quarter of 2017. Clinical trials involving candidate DNA and purified inactivated virus vaccines showed all were safe and well-tolerated in the small number of volunteers and all induced neutralizing antibodies, although these varied by vaccine candidate and dosing regimen. These results suggest that a Zika vaccine can be developed and that phase 2 clinical trials are warranted. However, it is difficult to compare the results from the different phase 1 studies or with neutralizing antibodies induced by licensed flavivirus vaccines (Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, and yellow fever) as neutralizing antibody assays vary and, unfortunately, there are no standards for Zika virus neutralizing antibodies. In addition to clinical studies, substantial progress continues to be made in nonclinical development, particularly in terms of the ability of candidate vaccines to protect reproductive tissues, and the potential use of monoclonal antibodies for passive prophylaxis.