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Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.)

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The options for long-term maintenance therapy in lupus nephritis (LN) remain controversial. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessed the prognosis and safety of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) versus azathioprine (AZA) used as maintenance therapy for lupus nephritis.

Concepts: Mycophenolic acid

27

AIM: Treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes parenteral iron therapy, and these infusions can lead to iron overload. Secondary iron overload is typically treated with iron chelators, of which deferasirox is one of the most promising. However, it has not been studied in patients with CKD and iron overload. METHODS: A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of deferasirox in 8 haemodialysis-dependent patients, who were receiving intravenous iron for treatment of anaemia of CKD. Deferasirox was administered at two doses (10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg), either acute (once daily for two days) or steady-state (once daily for two weeks). RESULTS: A dose of 10 mg/kg in either protocol was not sufficient to achieve a plasma concentration in the therapeutic range (acute peak 14.1 and steady-state 22.8 μmol/l), while 15 mg/kg in either protocol maintained plasma concentration well above this range (acute peak 216 and steady-state 171 μmol/l). Plasma concentration observed at 15 mg/kg was well above that expected for this dose (40-50 μmol/l), although no adverse clinical events were observed. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the need to profile drugs such as deferasirox in specific patient groups, such as those with CKD and iron overload.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Chronic kidney disease, Erythropoietin, Medicine, Medical terms, Dose, Artificial kidney, Routes of administration

23

To derive a simple risk score to predict the individual risk of major complications for patients undergoing a percutaneous renal biopsy procedure of native kidneys.

Concepts: Nephritic syndrome

22

Patients with diabetic nephropathy develop nephrotic syndrome, and may show limited response to conventional therapy. They often require earlier initiation of renal replacement therapy because they become refractory to diuretics, and experience excessive fluid retention. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of tolvaptan, an oral arginine vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist, in a case series of 14 severe diabetic renal failure patients who were severely refractory to maximal doses of furosemide and had excessive fluid retention despite preserved cardiac function and residual renal function. All 14 patients experienced immediate and sustained water diuretic effects, resulting in alleviation of congestive heart failure. None required initiation of renal replacement therapy. Tolvaptan promptly increased urine volume and free water clearance, reversed progressive fluid retention, and alleviated congestive heart failure. Thus, tolvaptan could serve as a potential adjunct therapy for severe diabetic renal failure patients with excessive fluid retention and congestive heart failure.

Concepts: Renal failure, Kidney, Nephrology, Hypertension, Urine, Renal physiology, Diabetes insipidus, Hypokalemia

2

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and muscle wasting, arising from numerous factors associated with declining renal function and lifestyle factors. Exercise has the ability to impact beneficially on the comorbidities associated with CKD and is accepted as an important intervention in the treatment, prevention and rehabilitation of other chronic diseases, however, the role of exercise in CKD is overlooked, with the provision of rehabilitation programmes well behind those of cardiology and respiratory services. Whilst there is now a large evidence base demonstrating the efficacy and safety of exercise training interventions in patients receiving dialysis, and this is now becoming incorporated into clinical guidelines for treatment of dialysis patients, there is a paucity of research evaluating the effectiveness of exercise in patients with CKD who are not on dialysis. Despite this, existing studies indicate that exercise can improve physical functioning and impact positively on the mediators of co-morbid diseases and upstream factors associated with progression of renal disease. Although preliminary evidence appears positive, more research is required to identify the best modes, frequency and intensities of exercise in order to optimise exercise prescription in pre-dialysis CKD patients. This review summarises what is known about the main effects of exercise in pre-dialysis CKD patients, discusses the potential of exercise in the rehabilitation and treatment of disease and highlights the need for further research.

Concepts: Renal failure, Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Erythropoietin, Dialysis, Medicine

0

A 54 year old male with β-Thalassemia major developed ESRD and was managed with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Although not able to be transfused due to high titre red cell antibodies he did require management of iron overload. Deferasirox (Exjade) was administered orally. There was concern that excretion of iron via the peritoneal dialysate may raise the risk of iron-dependent infections (Yersinia and Rhizopus).

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Nephrology, Dialysis, Bacteria, Hemodialysis, Peritoneum, Peritoneal dialysis, Deferasirox

0

Patients with diabetic nephropathy develop nephrotic syndrome, and may show limited response to conventional therapy. They often require earlier initiation of renal replacement therapy because they become refractory to diuretics, and experience excessive fluid retention. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of tolvaptan, an oral arginine vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist, in a case series of 14 severe diabetic renal failure patients who were severely refractory to maximal doses of furosemide and had excessive fluid retention despite preserved cardiac function and residual renal function. All 14 patients experienced immediate and sustained water diuretic effects, resulting in alleviation of congestive heart failure. None required initiation of renal replacement therapy. Tolvaptan promptly increased urine volume and free water clearance, reversed progressive fluid retention, and alleviated congestive heart failure. Thus, tolvaptan could serve as a potential adjunct therapy for severe diabetic renal failure patients with excessive fluid retention and congestive heart failure.

Concepts: Renal failure, Kidney, Nephrology, Hypertension, Urine, Renal physiology, Diabetes insipidus, Hypokalemia

0

Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious opportunistic infection in renal transplant recipients associated with high mortality. Screening and treatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) offers an opportunity to prevent subsequent active disease.

Concepts: Infectious disease, Opportunistic infection, Infection, Actuarial science, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Immunosuppressive drug

0

Although abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism is common in patients with 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic nephropathy (DN), the relationship between thyroid hormones and DN is unclear and being ignored during the clinical practice. This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormones and clinicopathologic changes in biopsy-proven DN patients.

Concepts: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Hormone, Obesity, Diabetes, Testosterone, Thyroid, Thyroid hormone

0

The literature on Membranous nephropathy (MN) with monoclonal deposits on immunofluorescence (IF) and their outcome is very scarce. We report our experience of managing five patients with this clinical entity. Mean age of the patients was 33.2±6.55 years. The mean proteinuria, serum albumin and serum creatinine was 5.73±2.17 g/day, 2.86±0.51 g/dL and 1.34±1.19 mg/dL, respectively. None of the patients had a lymphoproliferative disorder. Only one patient had an elevated free light chain ratio. Four (80%) patients were M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) negative (tissue and serum), and 1 (20%) was PLA2R related. Three (60%) cases had monoclonal IgG3/k, one IgG3/λ, whereas one patient with PLA2R positivity had an IgG3/IgG4k subtype. Two (67%) patients treated with cyclical cyclophosphamide and steroids (cCYC/GC) achieved complete remission and one patient (33%) with elevated baseline creatinine had a reduction in serum creatinine with persistent proteinuria at the end of 12th month of follow-up. One patient with PLA2R positive MN was treated with Rituximab and is in complete remission. The patient with an elevated free light chain at baseline was treated with Bortezomib/Thalidomide/Dexamethasone, had complete remission at 12 months, however, had a progressive rise in creatinine over the next 40 months of follow-up. The current series though limited by numbers documents the efficacy of conventional therapies in non-malignant associated MN with monoclonal deposits on IF.

Concepts: Patient, Creatinine, Phospholipase, Patience, Serum albumin, Lymphoproliferative disorders, Membranous glomerulonephritis, A2