Journal: Nature structural & molecular biology
Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) cation channels are polymodal sensors involved in a variety of physiological processes. TRPV2, a member of the TRPV family, is regulated by temperature, by ligands, such as probenecid and cannabinoids, and by lipids. TRPV2 has been implicated in many biological functions, including somatosensation, osmosensation and innate immunity. Here we present the atomic model of rabbit TRPV2 in its putative desensitized state, as determined by cryo-EM at a nominal resolution of ∼4 Å. In the TRPV2 structure, the transmembrane segment 6 (S6), which is involved in gate opening, adopts a conformation different from the one observed in TRPV1. Structural comparisons of TRPV1 and TRPV2 indicate that a rotation of the ankyrin-repeat domain is coupled to pore opening via the TRP domain, and this pore opening can be modulated by rearrangements in the secondary structure of S6.
Alzheimer’s disease is an increasingly prevalent neurodegenerative disorder whose pathogenesis has been associated with aggregation of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42). Recent studies have revealed that once Aβ42 fibrils are generated, their surfaces effectively catalyze the formation of neurotoxic oligomers. Here we show that a molecular chaperone, a human Brichos domain, can specifically inhibit this catalytic cycle and limit human Aβ42 toxicity. We demonstrate in vitro that Brichos achieves this inhibition by binding to the surfaces of fibrils, thereby redirecting the aggregation reaction to a pathway that involves minimal formation of toxic oligomeric intermediates. We verify that this mechanism occurs in living mouse brain tissue by cytotoxicity and electrophysiology experiments. These results reveal that molecular chaperones can help maintain protein homeostasis by selectively suppressing critical microscopic steps within the complex reaction pathways responsible for the toxic effects of protein misfolding and aggregation.
Mutations in BRCA2 increase susceptibility to breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. The product of human BRCA2, BRCA2 protein, has a key role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks and interstrand cross-links by RAD51-mediated homologous recombination. Here, we present a biochemical and structural characterization of full-length (3,418 amino acid) BRCA2, alone and in complex with RAD51. We show that BRCA2 facilitates nucleation of RAD51 filaments at multiple sites on single-stranded DNA. Three-dimensional EM reconstructions revealed that BRCA2 exists as a dimer and that two oppositely oriented sets of RAD51 molecules bind the dimer. Single-stranded DNA binds along the long axis of BRCA2, such that only one set of RAD51 monomers can form a productive complex with DNA and establish filament formation. Our data define the molecular mechanism by which this tumor suppressor facilitates RAD51-mediated homologous-recombinational repair.
Human endogenous retrovirus subfamily H (HERVH) is a class of transposable elements expressed preferentially in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Here, we report that the long terminal repeats of HERVH function as enhancers and that HERVH is a nuclear long noncoding RNA required to maintain hESC identity. Furthermore, HERVH is associated with OCT4, coactivators and Mediator subunits. Together, these results uncover a new role of species-specific transposable elements in hESCs.
Aggregated forms of α-synuclein play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenic effects of α-synuclein are not completely understood. Here we show that asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) cleaves human α-synuclein, triggers its aggregation and escalates its neurotoxicity, thus leading to dopaminergic neuronal loss and motor impairments in a mouse model. AEP is activated and cleaves human α-synuclein at N103 in an age-dependent manner. AEP is highly activated in human brains with PD, and it fragments α-synuclein, which is found aggregated in Lewy bodies. Overexpression of the AEP-cleaved α-synuclein1-103 fragment in the substantia nigra induces both dopaminergic neuronal loss and movement defects in mice. In contrast, inhibition of AEP-mediated cleavage of α-synuclein (wild type and A53T mutant) diminishes α-synuclein’s pathologic effects. Together, these findings support AEP’s role as a key mediator of α-synuclein-related etiopathological effects in PD.
Maintenance of genome integrity requires that branched nucleic acid molecules be accurately processed to produce double-helical DNA. Flap endonucleases are essential enzymes that trim such branched molecules generated by Okazaki-fragment synthesis during replication. Here, we report crystal structures of bacteriophage T5 flap endonuclease in complexes with intact DNA substrates and products, at resolutions of 1.9-2.2 Å. They reveal single-stranded DNA threading through a hole in the enzyme, which is enclosed by an inverted V-shaped helical arch straddling the active site. Residues lining the hole induce an unusual barb-like conformation in the DNA substrate, thereby juxtaposing the scissile phosphate and essential catalytic metal ions. A series of complexes and biochemical analyses show how the substrate’s single-stranded branch approaches, threads through and finally emerges on the far side of the enzyme. Our studies suggest that substrate recognition involves an unusual ‘fly-casting, thread, bend and barb’ mechanism.
Methylation of cytosine deoxynucleotides generates 5-methylcytosine (m(5)dC), a well-established epigenetic mark. However, in higher eukaryotes much less is known about modifications affecting other deoxynucleotides. Here, we report the detection of N(6)-methyldeoxyadenosine (m(6)dA) in vertebrate DNA, specifically in Xenopus laevis but also in other species including mouse and human. Our methylome analysis reveals that m(6)dA is widely distributed across the eukaryotic genome and is present in different cell types but is commonly depleted from gene exons. Thus, direct DNA modifications might be more widespread than previously thought.
Small heat-shock proteins, including αB-crystallin (αB), play an important part in protein homeostasis, because their ATP-independent chaperone activity inhibits uncontrolled protein aggregation. Mechanistic details of human αB, particularly in its client-bound state, have been elusive so far, owing to the high molecular weight and the heterogeneity of these complexes. Here we provide structural insights into this highly dynamic assembly and show, by using state-of-the-art NMR spectroscopy, that the αB complex is assembled from asymmetric building blocks. Interaction studies demonstrated that the fibril-forming Alzheimer’s disease Aβ1-40 peptide preferentially binds to a hydrophobic edge of the central β-sandwich of αB. In contrast, the amorphously aggregating client lysozyme is captured by the partially disordered N-terminal domain of αB. We suggest that αB uses its inherent structural plasticity to expose distinct binding interfaces and thus interact with a wide range of structurally variable clients.
Cytoplasmic dynein associates with dynactin to drive cargo movement on microtubules, but the structure of the dynein-dynactin complex is unknown. Using electron microscopy, we determined the organization of native bovine dynein, dynactin and the dynein-dynactin-microtubule quaternary complex. In the microtubule-bound complex, the dynein motor domains are positioned for processive unidirectional movement, and the cargo-binding domains of both dynein and dynactin are accessible.
The current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is characterized by severe pathogenicity in both children and adults. Sequence changes in ZIKV since its first isolation are apparent when pre-epidemic strains are compared with those causing the current epidemic. However, the residues that are responsible for ZIKV pathogenicity are largely unknown. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the immature ZIKV at 9-Å resolution. The cryo-EM map was fitted with the crystal structures of the precursor membrane and envelope glycoproteins and was shown to be similar to the structures of other known immature flaviviruses. However, the immature ZIKV contains a partially ordered capsid protein shell that is less prominent in other immature flaviviruses. Furthermore, six amino acids near the interface between pr domains at the top of the spikes were found to be different between the pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV, possibly influencing the composition and structure of the resulting viruses.