SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Nanomedicine (London, England)

169

Aim: To develop a clinically applicable MRI technique for tracking stem cells in matrix-associated stem-cell implants, using the US FDA-approved iron supplement ferumoxytol. Materials & methods: Ferumoxytol-labeling of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) was optimized in vitro. A total of 11 rats with osteochondral defects of both femurs were implanted with ferumoxytol- or ferumoxides-labeled or unlabeled ADSCs, and underwent MRI up to 4 weeks post matrix-associated stem-cell implant. The signal-to-noise ratio of different matrix-associated stem-cell implant was compared with t-tests and correlated with histopathology. Results: An incubation concentration of 500 µg iron/ml ferumoxytol and 10 µg/ml protamine sulfate led to significant cellular iron uptake, T2 signal effects and unimpaired ADSC viability. In vivo, ferumoxytol- and ferumoxides-labeled ADSCs demonstrated significantly lower signal-to-noise ratio values compared with unlabeled controls (p < 0.01). Histopathology confirmed engraftment of labeled ADSCs, with slow dilution of the iron label over time. Conclusion: Ferumoxytol can be used for in vivo tracking of stem cells with MRI. Original submitted 28 February 2012; Revised submitted 8 November 2012.

Concepts: Iron, Leukemia inhibitory factor, Signal-to-noise ratio, Cell division, Inner cell mass, Stem cell, In vivo, In vitro

151

Mineralo-organic nanoparticles (NPs) detected in biological fluids have been described as precursors of physiological and pathological calcifications in the body. Our main objective was to examine the early stages of mineral NP formation in body fluids.

Concepts: Biology

150

In this paper, I will discuss from a ‘Science and Technology Studies’ perspective three different modes of caring about the social complexity in biomedical and nanomedical research. Nanomedical research unfolds a variety of issues that generate different concerns, questions, problems, requirements and interests that connect with different systems of action (in vitro, in vivo), different kinds (human, nonhuman) and different scales of action (nano, micro, macro). To adequately address the social complexity, I will discuss three possible modes of caring about social complexity: Laboratory Experiment and Scientific Analysis, Public Expert Controversies, and Publics. These different modes of caring share an experimental ethos that engages nanomedical issues for which no common solutions are available.

Concepts: In vivo, Theory, In vitro, Sociology, Scientific method, Experiment, Research, Science

149

To develop a comprehensive computational framework to simulate tissue distribution of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) across several species.

Concepts: Pharmacokinetics, Distribution, Nanotechnology, Nanoparticle, Gold

149

148

Gold nanoparticles have attracted significant interest in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Herein, we evaluated the theranostic potential of dithiolated diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTDTPA) conjugated AuNPs (Au@DTDTPA) for CT-contrast enhancement and radiosensitization in prostate cancer.

Concepts: Proton therapy, Metastasis, Nanoparticle, Hormonal therapy, Gold, Radiation therapy, Prostate cancer, Cancer

146

In this study, chlorhexidine hexametaphosphate (CHX-HMP) is investigated as a persistent antimicrobial coating for wound care materials.

Concepts: Wound healing, Materials science, Effectiveness, Material

146

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen that is prevalent in serious infections in compromised patients worldwide. A unique virulence factor of this bacterium is the redox-active molecule pyocyanin, which is a potential biomarker for the identification of P. aeruginosa infections. Here we report a direct, selective and rapid detection technique of pyocyanin.

Concepts: Pseudomonadales, Antibiotic resistance, Pseudomonas, Microbiology, Opportunistic infection, Immune system, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteria

146

The main aim of this article is to explain the apoptosis mechanisms of cancer cells specifically triggered by gold nanorods (GNRs).

Concepts: Apoptosis, Ionizing radiation, Cancer

145

The respiratory tract is in constant contact with inhaled antigens from the external environment. In order to shape its line of defense, it is populated by various types of immune cells. Taking into account the scientific breakthroughs of nanomedicine and nanoparticle drug delivery, we can think of the respiratory tract as an ideal target organ to study and develop nanocarrier-based vaccines to treat respiratory tract disorders. Nanoparticles have been proven capable of specific cell targeting and, when suitably engineered, are able to induce an immunomodulatory effect. The aim of this review is to highlight in vitro approaches to the study of nanoparticle-lung immune cell interactions and recent advances in the targeting of immune cells using nanoparticle-based systems.

Concepts: Blood, Cytotoxic T cell, Nanotechnology, Respiratory system, Protein, Antibody, Immunology, Immune system