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Journal: Minerva ginecologica

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Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory gynecological disorder associated with pelvic pain symptoms and infertility. Ovarian cysts (endometriomas) are the most common localization of endometriosis in the pelvis. Considering non-invasive methods, transvaginal ultrasound has high sensitivity and specificity for endometrioma diagnosis. Laparoscopic removal of endometrioma is related to a damage to the ovarian reserve and should be limited to patients with suspicious cysts or unresponsive to medical treatment. The main goal of medical therapy of symptomatic endometrioma is the control of pain symptoms, while no benefits have been demonstrated in terms of improving fertility rates of women seeking pregnancy. The aim of medical treatment is the inhibition of ovulation, stop of menstruation and achievement of a stable hypo-hormonal milieu. Estroprogestins and progestins are indicated by guidelines as first line medications for symptomatic patients. Several hormonal treatments have been proposed for the treatment of symptomatic endometriomas. In particular, Dienogest, a relatively new progestin, has shown promising results. Medical treatment should be conceived as a long-term treatment. Safety, tolerability, a low percentage of side effects and an easy route of administration are essential for patient acceptance and adherence to therapy.

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In most cancers, lymph node status is the most critical factor impacting the evolution of the disease and the overall survival. Identifying potential nodal metastasis allows the oncologist to adjust the stage and, consequently, the patient’s treatment. For this reason, a precise evaluation of the regional nodes is mandatory. In gynecological cancers, pelvic, paraaortic, and inguinal nodes are the region most frequently interested by metastasis. In the past years, comprehensive lymphadenectomy was the standard of care for endometrial, cervical, ovarian, and vulvar cancers. However, after introducing the sentinel lymph node (SNL) biopsy in breast cancers, this technique has gained much more interest in gynecology oncology. Several studies have shown that SLN allows an evaluation of the node status without the complications related to the lymphadenectomy that impacts the patient’s quality of life. In this review, we discuss the role of SNL biopsy in gynecological cancers and the technique’s evolution over the years. Moreover, we debate the OSNA method for SLN analysis that is recently introduced for uterine cancer.

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The septate uterus is still a matter of debate and discussion today in different medical forums. The controversy is divided between 2 different quite divergent opinions, on the one hand that of those who promote its surgical correction and on the other that of those who advocate expectant management with no recommended surgical intervention. It is extremely difficult to determine the association between septum and infertility. Infertility is a multifactorial condition, furthermore, the mechanism by which the septate uterus is associated with infertility is still unknown, although the most probable causes seem to be related to implantation alterations. There is lack of high quality randomized controlled studies with an adequate number of patients demonstrating the efficacy of the surgical treatment of patients with septated uterus. However, the limited available data based on observational studies, support minimally invasive treatment using hysteroscopy as the method of choice for the treatment of patients with septated uterus and history of infertility or poor obstetrical outcomes.

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In recent years, minimally invasive surgery has replaced open surgery for almost all surgical indications in gynecological practice. Recently, the results of the Laparoscopic Approach to Cervical Cancer (LACC) trial questioned the role of minimally invasive surgery for patients affected by earlystage cervical cancer. In the present paper, we discussed the current evidence regarding the adoption of minimally invasive surgery for patients with cervical cancer. We evaluated the current evidence focusing on four interesting features: (i) the impact of tumor volume; (ii) reasons explaining worse outcomes of patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery; (iii) methods to reduce the risk of recurrence during minimally invasive surgery; and (iv) the effect of minimally invasive surgery in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. At the moment, in the light of current evidence, minimally invasive radical hysterectomy should be offered only in the context of clinical trials. Extensive counseling and appropriate patients' selection are needed. Further prospective evidence is warranted to identify the better approach for cervical cancer patients.

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Female age is the strongest predictor of embryo chromosomal abnormalities and has a non linear relationship with the blastocyst euploidy rate: with advancing age there is an acceleration in the reduction of blastocyst euploidy. Aneuploidy was found to significantly increase with maternal age from 30% in embryos from young women to 70% in women older than 40 years old. The association seems mainly due to chromosomal abnormalities occurring in the oocyte.We aimed to elaborate a model for the blastocyst euploid rate for patients undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles using advanced machine learning techniques.

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Vulvar cancer accounts for ~4% of all gynaecological malignancies and the majority of tumours (>90%) are squamous cell (keratanising, ~60% and warty/basaloid, ~30%). Surgical excision forms the foundation of treatment, with resection margin status being the single most influential factor when predicting clinical outcome. There has been a paradigm shift concerning surgical approaches and radicality when manging vulvar cancer within recent times, largely owing to a desire to preserve vulvar structure and function without compromising oncological outcome. As such the safety of the size of resection margin has been called into question. In this narrative review we consider the current literature on the safety of resection margins for vulvar cancer.

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Safe management of the second stage of labor is important. Wait for spontaneous delivery, operative vaginal deliveries and second stage cesarean sections are all options when prolonged second stage occurs. The important question is which option to choose. Fetal head station and fetal head position are used to decide mode of delivery, this has traditionally been decided by performing a digital vaginal examination. Studies have shown that theses clinical examinations of both fetal head station and position are unreliable and that ultrasound might be better option. The International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISUOG) published in 2018 guidelines on intrapartum ultrasound and recommends that ultrasound is performed for ascertainment of fetal head position and station before considering or performing an instrumental vaginal delivery for slow progress or arrested labor in the second stage. The determination of the fetal head position, fetal head station and the movement of the fetal head can easily be determined with the help of ultrasound and can help the clinicians in making the right decision on how to proceed when prolonged second stage of labor is diagnosed.

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Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) are one of the most common causes of anal incontinence (AI) in women of reproductive age and can have a significant impact on quality of life. However, many women do not report symptoms to their physicians because of embarrassment and shame. Therefore, prevention and diagnosis of the tear is essential. Diagnostic strategies have evolved considerably in recent years, with an increase in prevalence of OASIS as a consequence. The use of 3D endoanal (3D-EAUS) and 4D transperineal ultrasound (4D-TPUS), in addition to standard clinical examination have enhanced the detection of OASIS. Once identified, adequate repair by a skilled practitioner and optimal postpartum management should be ensured in order to reduce the risk of anal incontinence. This review presents the available evidence on strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and management of OASIS.

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Cervical cancer is currently one of the most common cancers afflicting the female population worldwide and in industrialized countries the presence of screening and a specific diagnostic and therapeutic process has favored early diagnosis of cervical cancer. In literature have found that reducing the radicality on the parametria in early cervical cancer (ECC), reduces complications without impacting oncological outcomes, but the data in the literature are not yet clear.

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The automatic analysis of fetal ECG in labor has been introduced as an adjunct of traditional cardiotocography with the aim to improve the identification of fetuses with intrapartum hypoxia. Several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses have produced conflicting results, with the most recent randomized controlled trial not demonstrating any improvement in either neonatal outcomes or reduction in operative birth rates. The objective of this review article is to present the state of art about the use of STAN technology in labor ward.