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Journal: Microsurgery


Complete circumferential degloving injury of the digits usually results in a large cutaneous defect with tendinous structure and bone and joint exposure. When revascularization is not possible, a thin and adequately sized flap is required to resurface the defect, restore finger function, and prevent amputation. In this report, we present our experience with reconstruction of the entire circumferential degloving injury of the digits using free fasciocutaneous flaps. Between February 2006 and January 2011, 9 male patients with circumferential degloving injury of 9 digits underwent reconstruction using free fasciocutaneous flap transfer with the posterior interosseous artery flap, medial sural artery flap, anteromedial thigh flap, or radial forearm flap. The average flap size was 14.2 × 6.9 cm. Donor sites were closed primarily or covered with split-thickness skin graft. All flaps survived completely and the donor sites healed without complications. The mean follow-up period was 34.8 months. A maximum Kapandji score (10/10) was seen in 2 cases with crushed thumbs. All patients could achieve good key pinch and grasping functions. All skin flaps showed acceptable static 2-point discrimination and adequate protective sensation. Patient satisfaction for resurfaced digits averaged 9 on a 10-points visual analogic scale. In conclusion, the free fasciocutaneous flaps used were thin and did not interfere with finger movements. The patient’s finger formed a smooth contour and acceptable functional results were obtained after reconstruction. This method may be a valuable alternative for reconstruction of entire circumferential avulsion injury of the digits. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2012.

Concepts: Finger, Patient, Avulsion injury, Arteries of the upper limb, Skin, Flap, Injuries, Forearm


Bone nonunion in the pediatric population usually occurs in the context of highly unfavorable biological conditions. Recently, the vascularized fibular periosteal flap has been reported as a very effective procedure for treating this condition. Even though a vascularized tibial periosteal graft (VTPG) was described long ago and has been successfully employed in one adult case, there has been no other report published on the use of this technique. We report on the use of VTPG, pedicled in the anterior tibial vessels, for the treatment of two complex pediatric bone nonunion case: a recalcitrant supracondylar femoral pseudarthrosis secondary to an infection in an 11-year-old girl, and a tibial nonunion secondary to a failed bone defect reconstruction in a 12-year-old girl. Rapid healing was obtained in both cases. In the light of the data presented, we consider VTPG as a valuable surgical option for the treatment of complex bone nonunions in children. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2014.

Concepts: Surgery, Complex analysis, Report, Nonunion, Case, Anterior tibial artery, Fibular artery, Popliteal artery


Limited information is available about the anatomical feasibility and clinical applications of flaps based on distal divisions of the superficial temporal artery (STA). The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the STA, focusing on the number and reliability of distal branches and to show representative cases for the use of such flaps for zygomatic, parieto-frontal and occipital reconstructions.

Concepts: Human anatomy, Superficial temporal artery, Anatomy, Temple, External carotid artery, Scalp


Clinical outcomes of consecutive use of the lateral calcaneal artery (LCA) as a recipient vessel for microsurgical reconstruction have not been reported. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of the LCA as a recipient vessel for microsurgical foot reconstruction based on anatomical study of CT angiography and clinical results of using this vessel as the recipient.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Calcaneus, Foot


Thin women have not traditionally been considered ideal candidates for autologous breast reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap reconstruction in thin women undergoing immediate unilateral breast reconstruction. A retrospective review of 1,040 consecutive patients was performed. In total, 381 patients met the inclusion criteria. To improve clinical interpretability, patients were divided into three groups based on body mass index: “thin” (BMI ≤ 22.99), “traditional” (>23 and ≤29.99), and “obese” (BMI >30) candidates. Flap characteristics were compared to mastectomy weights, and postoperative complications were analyzed. In all groups, flap size was generally more than sufficient to match the mastectomy specimen, as flap weight:mastectomy weight ratio ws greater than 1 in all groups with no significant difference between groups (1.1 in thin patients, 1.0 in traditional patients, and 1.0 in obese patients). Fat necrosis prevalence was lowest in the thin group (12.5%), compared to the traditional (15.9%, P = 0.443) or obese (14.4%, P = 0.698) groups. Prevalence of breast infection were lower in the thin patients (5.2%) versus the traditional (8.7%, P = 0.287) or obese (14.4%, P = 0.033). Abdominal wound healing complications and seroma were also lowest in thin patients. DIEP flap breast reconstruction may be an effective method for unilateral breast reconstruction in thin patients, with sufficient flap weights and lower incidence of complications than in heavier patients. As such, low BMI may not present a barrier in the reconstruction of a breast mound matching native breast size. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2015.

Concepts: Plastic surgery, Breast cancer, Obesity, Mass, Cancer, Breast reconstruction, Breast, Body mass index


Historically, conventional musculocutaneous flaps have been commonly used for reconstruction after soft tissue sarcoma resection, and the use of lower abdominal perforator flaps has not been popular. This report examined the current role of lower abdominal perforator flaps in sarcoma treatment.


The medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap is an increasingly versatile and reliable flap for soft tissue reconstruction. This study investigates complication rates and long-term outcomes of the MSAP flap.


In cases of large defects of the limbs, post-traumatic deformity and disability can have devastating effects on patients' quality of life. The purpose of this report is to describe the technique for raising a fasciocutaneous iliotibial perforator flap and present its application in the reconstruction of a complex soft tissue defect of the foot. The patient was a 13-year-old male who had suffered a crush injury to the foot in a motor vehicle accident 5 years earlier. Due to retraction of the skin, together with the extensor tendons of the digits, the patient could not flex the digits II, III, IV, and V. To reconstruct the defect, the authors harvested a fasciocutaneous flap based on a perforator branch of the superior lateral genicular artery and accompanying veins. The immediate postoperative course was uneventful, with progressive and complete recovery of power and range of motion in the foot and knee within 6 weeks. Despite the tendency to form hypertrophic scars again, the functionality of the operated foot was excellent 29 months after the reconstruction. According to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society scale, the patient scored 100 points on the midfoot section and 93 points on the section forefoot rays two to five. The iliotibial perforator flap could be a new tool for a state-of-the-art functional reconstruction of soft tissues defects of the limbs and head and neck.


Abdominal free flap harvest for breast reconstruction may result in significant morbidity in terms of hernias and bulges. Reinforcement of the donor site with mesh has been recommended to minimize the risk of hernias and bulges, but no studies exist evaluating the optimal type of mesh. Polypropylene has traditionally been used but the development of Phasix restorable mesh may be a reasonable alternative. Here, we compared the use of Phasix to polypropylene and primary closure and hypothesize that the former has lower rates of abdominal morbidity in the long term.


The reconstruction of defects of the perianal area and vagina places a high demand on a reconstructive surgeon. Different reconstructive methods include a skin graft, a local skin flap, a musculocutaneous flap, and a pedicled perforator flap. Here, we report the case of a 59-year-old female patient with a pelvic defect, who underwent reconstruction with a quadruplet combination of pedicled flaps from the medial thigh, due to an extensive resection of a recurrence of a squamous cell carcinoma of the anus, vulva, and partially the colon. The surgical oncologist performed a rectum amputation, a partial colectomy, a complete hysterectomy, and a resection of the dorso-lateral vaginal vault in order to achieve tumor-free margins. The resulting defect measured 14 × 11 cm2 with 8 cm of deep space. The defect was covered and reconstructed by employing a bilateral pedicled gracilis muscle flap rotated about 120° and advanced to fill up the residual spare space in the deep and a bilateral vertical posteromedial thigh (vPMT) using a propeller flap measuring 27 × 10 cm2 rotated 180° in order to reconstruct the vagina and the perianal area. All flaps survived without major post-operative complications. The donor site morbidity was minimal. The range of motion was not limited over both hip and knee joints. Patient had no problem with urination. Sexual intercourse was not highly considered due to patient’s old age. The follow-up at 6 months showed acceptable cosmetic results with a satisfying contour of the coverage and reconstructed area. The combination of pedicled gracilis muscle flap and vPMT propeller flap may represent a valuable option in such a defect where deep space obliteration and reconstruction of the vagina with perianal contouring are needed.