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Journal: Microsurgery


Complete circumferential degloving injury of the digits usually results in a large cutaneous defect with tendinous structure and bone and joint exposure. When revascularization is not possible, a thin and adequately sized flap is required to resurface the defect, restore finger function, and prevent amputation. In this report, we present our experience with reconstruction of the entire circumferential degloving injury of the digits using free fasciocutaneous flaps. Between February 2006 and January 2011, 9 male patients with circumferential degloving injury of 9 digits underwent reconstruction using free fasciocutaneous flap transfer with the posterior interosseous artery flap, medial sural artery flap, anteromedial thigh flap, or radial forearm flap. The average flap size was 14.2 × 6.9 cm. Donor sites were closed primarily or covered with split-thickness skin graft. All flaps survived completely and the donor sites healed without complications. The mean follow-up period was 34.8 months. A maximum Kapandji score (10/10) was seen in 2 cases with crushed thumbs. All patients could achieve good key pinch and grasping functions. All skin flaps showed acceptable static 2-point discrimination and adequate protective sensation. Patient satisfaction for resurfaced digits averaged 9 on a 10-points visual analogic scale. In conclusion, the free fasciocutaneous flaps used were thin and did not interfere with finger movements. The patient’s finger formed a smooth contour and acceptable functional results were obtained after reconstruction. This method may be a valuable alternative for reconstruction of entire circumferential avulsion injury of the digits. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2012.

Concepts: Finger, Patient, Avulsion injury, Arteries of the upper limb, Skin, Flap, Injuries, Forearm


Bone nonunion in the pediatric population usually occurs in the context of highly unfavorable biological conditions. Recently, the vascularized fibular periosteal flap has been reported as a very effective procedure for treating this condition. Even though a vascularized tibial periosteal graft (VTPG) was described long ago and has been successfully employed in one adult case, there has been no other report published on the use of this technique. We report on the use of VTPG, pedicled in the anterior tibial vessels, for the treatment of two complex pediatric bone nonunion case: a recalcitrant supracondylar femoral pseudarthrosis secondary to an infection in an 11-year-old girl, and a tibial nonunion secondary to a failed bone defect reconstruction in a 12-year-old girl. Rapid healing was obtained in both cases. In the light of the data presented, we consider VTPG as a valuable surgical option for the treatment of complex bone nonunions in children. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2014.

Concepts: Surgery, Complex analysis, Report, Nonunion, Case, Anterior tibial artery, Fibular artery, Popliteal artery


Limited information is available about the anatomical feasibility and clinical applications of flaps based on distal divisions of the superficial temporal artery (STA). The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the STA, focusing on the number and reliability of distal branches and to show representative cases for the use of such flaps for zygomatic, parieto-frontal and occipital reconstructions.

Concepts: Human anatomy, Superficial temporal artery, Anatomy, Temple, External carotid artery, Scalp


Clinical outcomes of consecutive use of the lateral calcaneal artery (LCA) as a recipient vessel for microsurgical reconstruction have not been reported. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of the LCA as a recipient vessel for microsurgical foot reconstruction based on anatomical study of CT angiography and clinical results of using this vessel as the recipient.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Calcaneus, Foot


Thin women have not traditionally been considered ideal candidates for autologous breast reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap reconstruction in thin women undergoing immediate unilateral breast reconstruction. A retrospective review of 1,040 consecutive patients was performed. In total, 381 patients met the inclusion criteria. To improve clinical interpretability, patients were divided into three groups based on body mass index: “thin” (BMI ≤ 22.99), “traditional” (>23 and ≤29.99), and “obese” (BMI >30) candidates. Flap characteristics were compared to mastectomy weights, and postoperative complications were analyzed. In all groups, flap size was generally more than sufficient to match the mastectomy specimen, as flap weight:mastectomy weight ratio ws greater than 1 in all groups with no significant difference between groups (1.1 in thin patients, 1.0 in traditional patients, and 1.0 in obese patients). Fat necrosis prevalence was lowest in the thin group (12.5%), compared to the traditional (15.9%, P = 0.443) or obese (14.4%, P = 0.698) groups. Prevalence of breast infection were lower in the thin patients (5.2%) versus the traditional (8.7%, P = 0.287) or obese (14.4%, P = 0.033). Abdominal wound healing complications and seroma were also lowest in thin patients. DIEP flap breast reconstruction may be an effective method for unilateral breast reconstruction in thin patients, with sufficient flap weights and lower incidence of complications than in heavier patients. As such, low BMI may not present a barrier in the reconstruction of a breast mound matching native breast size. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2015.

Concepts: Plastic surgery, Breast cancer, Obesity, Mass, Cancer, Breast reconstruction, Breast, Body mass index


Most skin paddles of the fibula flap are harvested from the distal third of the lower leg, skin grafting for the donor-site is necessary.


The superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap cannot be used for coverage of large defects. We introduce a novel flap design to overcome the SCIP flap’s size limitation.


The probability of spontaneous recovery of shoulder external rotation in neonatal brachial plexus injury (NBPI) is very low after the age of 18 months. We report the outcomes of double nerve transfers to restore active external rotation of the glenohumeral joint in children with NBPI after this age.


In nerve allograft development, currently used subjective histological scoring systems to evaluate nerve structure in experimental studies are not uniform and have not been validated. The aim of this study was to describe and validate a simple, fast and inexpensive method to compare structural properties of nerve allografts on a histological level.


Reconstruction of complex back defects is challenging for reconstructive surgeons, as it should preserve function, provide adequate coverage, and minimize morbidity. We present a case of multiple-step reconstruction after resection of a large squamous cell carcinoma recurrence in a 68-year-old man, with local perforator flaps and a reverse-flow latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. After radical excision, four propeller perforator flaps were harvested to cover a 30 × 25 cm defect, based on the dorsal branch of the fifth posterior intercostal arteries (right 20 × 9 cm, left 17 × 9 cm) and on the superior gluteal arteries (right 20 × 11 cm, left 21 × 12 cm) bilaterally. In the second step, bilateral propeller perforator flaps based on the fourth lumbar arteries (right 18 × 13 cm, left 23 × 11 cm) were transposed to cover the residual loss of tissues. After 5 months, a recurrence occurred on the left midback. A wide en bloc excision of the last three ribs and pulmonary pleura was performed, and the synthetic mesh used for thoracic wall reconstruction was covered with an ipsilateral 20 × 10 cm reverse-flow latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap based on the serratus anterior branch. All the flaps healed uneventfully and there were no donor-site complications. Two years postoperatively, the patient had a cosmetically acceptable result without any functional impairment. The reverse-flow latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap can represent a salvage procedure in back complex defects reconstruction, especially when other local flaps have already been harvested in previous reconstructive procedures.