SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Micromachines

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The current study is based on Zn/ZnO nanoparticles photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated effects on healthy liver cells and cancerous cells. The synthesis of Zn/ZnO nanoparticles was accomplished using chemical and hydrothermal methods. The characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles was carried out using manifold techniques (e.g., transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)). In order to study the biotoxicity of the grown nanoparticles, they were applied individually and in conjunction with the third generation photosensitiser Fotolon (Chlorine e6) in the in vivo model of the normal liver of the Wister rat, and in the in vitro cancerous liver (HepG2) model both in the dark and under a variety of laser exposures (630 nm, Ultraviolet (UV) light). The localization of ZnO nanoparticles was observed by applying fluorescence spectroscopy on a 1 cm² selected area of normal liver, whereas the in vitro cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection were carried out by calculating the loss in the cell viability of the hepatocellular model by applying a neutral red assay (NRA). Furthermore, a statistical analysis is carried out and it is ensured that the p value is less than 0.05. Thus, the current study has highlighted the potential for applying Zn/ZnO nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy that would lead to wider medical applications to improve the efficiency of cancer treatment and its biological aspect study.

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In the quest for chronically reliable and bio-tolerable brain interfaces there has been a steady evolution towards the use of highly flexible, polymer-based electrode arrays. The reduced mechanical mismatch between implant and brain tissue has shown to reduce the evoked immune response, which in turn has a positive effect on signal stability and noise. Unfortunately, the low stiffness of the implants also has practical repercussions, making surgical insertion extremely difficult. In this work we explore the use of dextran as a coating material that temporarily stiffens the implant, preventing buckling during insertion. The mechanical properties of dextran coated neural probes are characterized, as well as the different parameters which influence the dissolution rate. Tuning parameters, such as coating thickness and molecular weight of the used dextran, allows customization of the stiffness and dissolution time to precisely match the user’s needs. Finally, the immunological response to the coated electrodes was analyzed by performing a histological examination after four months of in vivo testing. The results indicated that a very limited amount of glial scar tissue was formed. Neurons have also infiltrated the area that was initially occupied by the dissolving dextran coating. There was no noticeable drop in neuron density around the site of implantation, confirming the suitability of the coating as a temporary aid during implantation of highly flexible polymer-based neural probes.

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Since the 1940s electrocorticography (ECoG) devices and, more recently, in the last decade, micro-electrocorticography (µECoG) cortical electrode arrays were used for a wide set of experimental and clinical applications, such as epilepsy localization and brain⁻computer interface (BCI) technologies. Miniaturized implantable µECoG devices have the advantage of providing greater-density neural signal acquisition and stimulation capabilities in a minimally invasive fashion. An increased spatial resolution of the µECoG array will be useful for greater specificity diagnosis and treatment of neuronal diseases and the advancement of basic neuroscience and BCI research. In this review, recent achievements of ECoG and µECoG are discussed. The electrode configurations and varying material choices used to design µECoG arrays are discussed, including advantages and disadvantages of µECoG technology compared to electroencephalography (EEG), ECoG, and intracortical electrode arrays. Electrode materials that are the primary focus include platinum, iridium oxide, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), indium tin oxide (ITO), and graphene. We discuss the biological immune response to µECoG devices compared to other electrode array types, the role of µECoG in clinical pathology, and brain⁻computer interface technology. The information presented in this review will be helpful to understand the current status, organize available knowledge, and guide future clinical and research applications of µECoG technologies.

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In traditional laser-based 3D measurement technology, the width of the laser stripe is uncontrollable and uneven. In addition, speckle noise in the image and the noise caused by mechanical movement may reduce the accuracy of the scanning results. This work proposes a new multiple laser stripe scanning profilometry (MLSSP) based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanning mirror which can project high quality movable laser stripe. It can implement full-field scanning in a short time and does not need to move the measured object or camera. Compared with the traditional laser stripe, the brightness, width and position of the new multiple laser stripes projected by MEMS scanning mirror can be controlled by programming. In addition, the new laser strip can generate high-quality images and the noise caused by mechanical movement is completely eliminated. The experimental results show that the speckle noise is less and the light intensity distribution is more even. Furthermore, the number of pictures needed to be captured is significantly reduced to 1 / N ( N is the number of multiple laser stripes projected by MEMS scanning mirror) and the measurement efficiency is increased by N times, improving the efficiency and accuracy of 3D measurement.

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Microsystems with limited power supplies, such as electronic skin and smart fuzes, have a strong demand for self-powered pressure and impact sensors. In recent years, new self-powered mechanical sensors based on the piezoresistive characteristics of porous electrodes have been rapidly developed, and have unique advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric sensors. In this paper, in order to optimize the mechanical sensitivity of porous electrodes, a material preparation process that can enhance the piezoresistive characteristics is proposed. A flexible porous electrode with superior piezoresistive characteristics and elasticity was prepared by modifying the microstructure of the porous electrode material and adding an elastic rubber component. Furthermore, based on the porous electrode, a self-powered pressure sensor and an impact sensor were fabricated. Through experimental results, the response signals of the sensors present a voltage peak under such mechanical effects and the sensitive signal has less clutter, making it easy to identify the features of the mechanical effects.

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A compact broadband implantable patch antenna is designed for the field of biotelemetry and experimentally demonstrated using the Medical Device Radiocommunications Service (MedRadio) band (401⁻406 MHz). The proposed antenna can obtain a broad impedance bandwidth by exciting dual-resonant frequencies, and has a compact structure using bent metal radiating strips and a short strategy. The total volume of the proposed antenna, including substrate and superstrate, is about 479 mm³ (23 × 16.4 × 1.27 mm³). The measured bandwidth is 52 MHz (382⁻434 MHz) at a return loss of -10 dB. The resonance, radiation and specific absorption rate (SAR) performance of the antenna are examined and characterized.

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The ability to focus biological particles into a designated position of a microchannel is vital for various biological applications. This paper reports particle focusing under vertical and inclined magnetic fields. We analyzed the effect of the angle of rotation (θ) of the permanent magnets and the critical Reynolds number (Rec) on the particle focusing in depth. We found that a rotation angle of 10° is preferred; a particle loop has formed when Re < Rec and Rec of the inclined magnetic field is larger than that of the vertical magnetic field. We also conducted experiments with polystyrene particles (10.4 μm in diameter) to prove the calculations. Experimental results show that the focusing effectiveness improved with increasing applied magnetic field strength or decreasing inlet flow rate.

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This study presents the slot-die coating process of two layers of organic materials for the fabrication of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), which is commonly used in OLEDs and in organic photovoltaic devices as the hole injection layer (HIL), has been deposited via slot-die coating. Uniform films of PEDOT:PSS were obtained after optimizing the slot-die processing parameters: substrate temperature, coating speed, and ink flow rate. The film quality was examined using optical microscopy, profilometry, and atomic force microscopy. Further, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (F8) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT), a well know polymer blend F8:F8BT, which is used as an emissive layer in OLEDs, has been slot-die coated. The optoelectronic properties of the slot-die coated F8:F8BT films were examined by means of photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) studies. The fabricated OLEDs, consisting of slot-die coated PEDOT:PSS and F8:F8BT films, were characterized to record the brightness and current efficiency.

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Advancements in flexible circuit interconnects are critical for widespread adoption of flexible electronics. Non-toxic liquid-metals offer a viable solution for flexible electrodes due to deformability and low bulk resistivity. However, fabrication processes utilizing liquid-metals suffer from high complexity, low throughput, and significant production cost. Our team utilized an inexpensive spray-on stencil technique to deposit liquid-metal Galinstan electrodes in top-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs). The electrode stencils were patterned using an automated vinyl cutter and positioned directly onto chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene transferred to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Our spray-on method exhibited a throughput of 28 transistors in under five minutes on the same graphene sample, with a 96% yield for all devices down to a channel length of 50 μm. The fabricated transistors possess hole and electron mobilities of 663.5 cm²/(V·s) and 689.9 cm²/(V·s), respectively, and support a simple and effective method of developing high-yield flexible electronics.

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Capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C⁴D) is an improved approach to avoid the problems of labor-intensive, time-consuming and insufficient accuracy of plate count as well as the high-cost apparatus of flow cytometry (FCM) in bacterial counting. This article describes a novel electrode-integrated printed-circuit-board (PCB)-based C⁴D device, which supports the simple and safe exchange of capillaries and improves the sensitivity and repeatability of the contactless detection. Furthermore, no syringe pump is needed in the detection, it reduces the system size, and, more importantly, avoids the effect on the bacteria due to high pressure. The recovered bacteria after C⁴D detection at excitation of 25 Vpp and 60⁻120 kHz were analyzed by flow cytometry, and a survival rate higher than 96% was given. It was verified that C⁴D detection did not influence the bacterial viability. Moreover, bacteria concentrations from 10⁶ cells/mL to 10⁸ cells/mL were measured in a linear range, and relative standard deviation (RSD) is below 0.2%. In addition, the effects on bacteria and C⁴D from background solutions were discussed. In contrast to common methods used in most laboratories, this method may provide a simple solution to in situ detection of bacterial cultures.