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Journal: Metabolism: clinical and experimental


Several epidemiological studies have reported that high concentrations of circulating ferritin, a marker of iron stores, are related to insulin resistance (IR); however, questions remain regarding inconsistent data between Asian men and women and the inadequate consideration of potential confounding effects on the relationship between ferritin and IR. Our aim was to examine the relationship between serum ferritin concentrations and IR markers in the Japanese population.

Concepts: Japan, Iron deficiency anemia, Asia, Demographics of Japan


Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Carbohydrate, Diets, Low-carbohydrate diet, Zone diet


We investigated if daily egg feeding, along with carbohydrate restriction, would alter lipoprotein metabolism and influence atherogenic lipoprotein profiles and insulin resistance in men and women with metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Concepts: Nutrition, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Insulin resistance, Glycogen, Metabolic syndrome, Carbohydrate


Little is known about serum uric acid (SUA) role for hypertension in the Asian countries with low cardiovascular events. We aimed to explore the relationship in a comprehensive Chinese cohort.

Concepts: Ammonia, Blood, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Stroke, Metabolic syndrome, Orthostatic hypotension, Uric acid


Although oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most common treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), their effects and safety on the metabolic profiles of these patients are relatively unknown. In this meta-analysis the effects of the different durations (from 3months to 1year) of OC treatment using cyproterone acetate (CA) or third generation progestins on metabolic profile of patients with PCOS were assessed.

Concepts: Syndromes, Menstrual cycle, Polycystic ovary syndrome


Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4 wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Ketogenic diet, Diets, Low-carbohydrate diet, Ketosis


N-3 PUFA (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are a family of fatty acids mainly found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. The effects of n-3 PUFA on health are mainly derived from its anti-inflammatory proprieties and its influence on immune function. Lately an increased interest in n-3 PUFA supplementation has reached the world of sport nutrition, where the majority of athletes rely on nutrition strategies to improve their training and performance. A vast amount of attention is paid in increasing metabolic capacity, delaying the onset of fatigue, and improving muscle hypertrophy and neuromuscular function. Nutritional strategies are also frequently considered for enhancing recovery, improving immune function and decreasing oxidative stress. The current review of the literature shows that data regarding the effects of n-3PUFA supplementation are conflicting and we conclude that there is, therefore, not enough evidence supporting a beneficial role on the aforementioned aspects of exercise performance.

Concepts: Metabolism, Nutrition, Fatty acids, Essential fatty acid, Omega-3 fatty acid, Fat, Saturated fat, Unsaturated fat


High fat, low carbohydrate (HFLC) diets have become popular tools for weight management. We sought to determine the effects of a HFLC diet compared to a low fat high carbohydrate (LFHC) diet on the change in weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in subjects with obesity.

Concepts: Inflammation, Nutrition, Obesity, Physical exercise, Adipose tissue, Dieting, C-reactive protein, Low-carbohydrate diet


OBJECTIVE: Fat oxidation during exercise depends on nutritional state, and exercise performed in the post-absorptive state oxidizes more fat than that performed in the postprandial state. However, the effects of exercise on energy metabolism continue during the post-exercise period, and the difference in fat oxidation during exercise may be compensated for during the post-exercise period. The present study compared the effects of an acute exercise bout in the post-absorptive or postprandial state on 24h fat oxidation. METHODS: Twelve young male athletes stayed twice in a room-size metabolic chamber for 24h indirect calorimetry in a randomized repeated-measure design. Before or after breakfast, i.e. in the post-absorptive or postprandial state, subjects exercised at 50% VO(2) max for 60min. RESULTS: During the 60min of exercise, energy expenditure in the two exercise trials were equivalent, but exercise in the post-absorptive state was performed with lower RQ compared with that in the postprandial state (P<0.01). The time of exercise relative to breakfast did not affect 24h energy expenditure (P>0.5). However, accumulated 24h fat oxidation was higher (P<0.05) and that of carbohydrate oxidation was lower (P<0.05) when exercise was performed in the post-absorptive state. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with exercise performed in the postprandial state, exercise performed in the post-absorptive state oxidized more fat and saved more carbohydrate in the body, without affecting 24h energy expenditure.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Carbon dioxide, Metabolism, Nutrition, Adenosine triphosphate, Redox, Cellular respiration, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a low-fat (LF) diet is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection. However, the applicability of these findings is questionable as the majority of Americans consume a high-fat (HF) diet.

Concepts: Nutrition, United States, Calorie restriction, Fasting, Diets, Diet food, Intermittent fasting, Eating behaviors