Journal: Metabolism: clinical and experimental
Several epidemiological studies have reported that high concentrations of circulating ferritin, a marker of iron stores, are related to insulin resistance (IR); however, questions remain regarding inconsistent data between Asian men and women and the inadequate consideration of potential confounding effects on the relationship between ferritin and IR. Our aim was to examine the relationship between serum ferritin concentrations and IR markers in the Japanese population.
Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations.
We investigated if daily egg feeding, along with carbohydrate restriction, would alter lipoprotein metabolism and influence atherogenic lipoprotein profiles and insulin resistance in men and women with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Little is known about serum uric acid (SUA) role for hypertension in the Asian countries with low cardiovascular events. We aimed to explore the relationship in a comprehensive Chinese cohort.
Although oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most common treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), their effects and safety on the metabolic profiles of these patients are relatively unknown. In this meta-analysis the effects of the different durations (from 3months to 1year) of OC treatment using cyproterone acetate (CA) or third generation progestins on metabolic profile of patients with PCOS were assessed.
Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4 wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes.
Global rates of obesity continue to rise and are necessarily the consequence of a long-term imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. This is the result of an expansion of adipose tissue due to both the hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and hyperplasia of adipocyte pre-cursors. Exercise elicits numerous physiological benefits on adipose tissue, which are likely to contribute to the associated cardiometabolic benefits. More recently it has been demonstrated that exercise, through a range of mechanisms, induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue from energy storing white adipocytes to thermogenic beige adipocytes. This has generated the hypothesis that the process of adipocyte ‘browning’ may partially underlie the improved cardiometabolic health in physically active populations. Interestingly, ‘browning’ also occurs in response to various stressors and could represent an adaptive response. In the context of exercise, it is not clear whether the appearance of beige adipocytes is metabolically beneficial or whether they occur as a transient adaptive process to exercise-induced stresses. The present review discusses the various mechanisms (e.g. fatty acid oxidation during exercise, decreased thermal insulation, stressors and angiogenesis) by which the exercise-induced ‘browning’ process may occur.
N-3 PUFA (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are a family of fatty acids mainly found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. The effects of n-3 PUFA on health are mainly derived from its anti-inflammatory proprieties and its influence on immune function. Lately an increased interest in n-3 PUFA supplementation has reached the world of sport nutrition, where the majority of athletes rely on nutrition strategies to improve their training and performance. A vast amount of attention is paid in increasing metabolic capacity, delaying the onset of fatigue, and improving muscle hypertrophy and neuromuscular function. Nutritional strategies are also frequently considered for enhancing recovery, improving immune function and decreasing oxidative stress. The current review of the literature shows that data regarding the effects of n-3PUFA supplementation are conflicting and we conclude that there is, therefore, not enough evidence supporting a beneficial role on the aforementioned aspects of exercise performance.
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an enzyme crucial for collagen fibre crosslinking and thus for fibrosis development. Fibrosis is characterised by a surplus of collagen fibre accumulation and is amongst others also a feature of obesity-associated dysfunctional adipose tissue (AT) which has been linked with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesised that in type 2 diabetes and obesity LOX expression and activity will be increased as a consequence of worsening AT dysfunction. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive characterisation of LOX in human AT.
High fat, low carbohydrate (HFLC) diets have become popular tools for weight management. We sought to determine the effects of a HFLC diet compared to a low fat high carbohydrate (LFHC) diet on the change in weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in subjects with obesity.