SciCombinator

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Journal: Medicine

134

To evaluate the prognostic significance of factors frequently associated with a reduction in renal mass, such as prematurity, low birth weight, and congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), in patients with solitary functioning kidney (SFK) and investigate signs of early renal injury due to glomerular hyperfiltration damage or dysplasia in the remaining kidney.Retrospective observational study of congenital SFK diagnosed and followed at a tertiary care hospital over a period of 10 years in which 32,900 newborns underwent routine neonatal abdominal ultrasound screening. We analyzed age at diagnosis, sex, gestational age, anthropometric measurements at birth and prenatal and neonatal ultrasound findings, in addition to follow-up data corresponding to imaging findings (ultrasound, micturating cystourethrography, dimercaptosuccinic acid renal, and scintigraphy), ipsilateral CAKUT, compensatory hypertrophy, and renal injury in the form of albuminuria, blood pressure, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).In total, 128 congenital SFK cases were detected (1 per 257 live births). Of these, 117 (91.4%) were diagnosed by neonatal ultrasound screening and 44.5% of these had been previously identified by prenatal ultrasound. Neonatal ultrasound had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 92.1%. Forty-five patients (35.2%) had ipsilateral CAKUT and the most common type was urinary collecting system anomalies (75.5%). Over a median follow-up of 6.3 years (1-10 years), compensatory renal hypertrophy was observed in 81 patients (63.7%), most of whom had ipsilateral CAKUT (76.1% vs 56.6% of patients without ipsilateral CAKUT). Albuminuria and hypertension were observed in 3.12% and 5% of patients, respectively, and both were associated with ipsilateral CAKUT (P < .05). In addition, 75% of albuminuria cases (P = .031), 83.3% of hypertension cases (P = .004), and 100% of decreased eGFRcases (P = .031) were significantly associated with CAKUT (renal parenchymal anomaly category), being the strongest predictor of GFR the presence or absence of CAKUT.Neonatal ultrasound screening is useful for the early diagnosis of SFK. The presence of ipsilateral CAKUT should be evaluated in all patients with SFK as congenital anomalies of the renal parenchyma are associated with a poorer prognosis. Because morbidity from CAKUTs may not develop until adulthood, patients should be closely followed throughout life.

134

Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in Brazilian patients from Phase 2 (P2) and Phase 3 (P3) global studies of up to 24 months' duration were evaluated.

134

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is considered one of the main causes of left ventricular dysfunction and is the leading cause of nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in developed countries. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between clinical characteristics and prognosis in ACM.

133

Although various oral medications and procedures are applied for managing migraine, their efficacy remains limited. To control migraine that does not respond to conventional treatments, we conducted pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) stimulation to the greater occipital nerve (GON) in 2 patients.

133

This study aimed to perform a systematic literature review of the clinical trial evidence on electrical stimulation for the treatment of neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) after spinal cord injury (SCI).

132

The forearm deformity classified by Masada is a characteristic trait of patients with hereditary multiple exostoses (HME). Ulnar gradual lengthening, which was considered to be a safe and reliable procedure, was popular in treating these difficult deformities, however, delayed consolidation of the callus is uncommon but not rare in literature review. The purpose of this study was to try to identify the risk factors influencing bone healing in gradual ulnar lengthening in HME.We retrospectively reviewed patients with HME-induced forearm deformity who underwent gradual ulnar lengthening at our hospital from 2010 to 2016. Patients' demographic data, forearm deformity of Masada type, surgical procedure, ulnar diameter of osteotomy site, and external fixator type were recorded. We also reviewed radiographical data included gained length, axis deviation, callus form. Clinical outcome was assessed by the bone healing index (HI). Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the relationships between diffident parameters and the HI, the level of significance was set P <.05.Thirty-three patients were included in this study. The mean follow-up period was 1.5 (range 0.5-8) years. Circular external fixators were used in 5 patients and monolateral external fixators were used in 28 patients. The mean achieved length was 4.24 cm. The mean HI was 50.3 (range 26.6-99.3) days/cm. In patient with monolateral external fixator, patient's age was positively correlated with the bone HI (P = .001), while diameter and body mass index (BMI) were negatively correlated with the HI (P = .040, .018, respectively). Patient's sex, removal of distal ulnar exostoses, lengthening percentage, and axis deviation were non-significant in the regression model.When using monolateral external fixator for ulnar lengthening, patient's age, diameter of osteotomy site, and BMI are the most important risk factors related to bone formation. Pediatric orthopedic surgeons should consider these variables in order to avoid delayed union.

124

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound formulations are selected according to different populations, with strong targeting and less adverse reactions. As a complex disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has limited efficacy in the use of conventional treatment regiments, short life cycle, high cost, many side effects, and low quality of life. It is urgent to seek new alternative therapies. Clinical practice shows that Chinese herbal compound combined with western medicine has certain therapeutic advantages, but there is no evidence of evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal compound combined with western medicine in the treatment of ALS.

124

Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) can produce several beneficial effects and are commonly used for the treatment of migraine symptoms. Although current therapeutic measures for migraine included pharmacological therapies, dietary supplements, and herbal ingredients, dietary patterns, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, biofeedback, and psychotherapy, omega-3 FAs therapeutic role seems to be obtained through the inhibition or reduction of the release of inflammatory cytokines. The present review aims to provide updated information about the effects of omega-3 FAs in migraine treatment, investigating their clinical effects alone or in combination with other substances.

123

The Gas Man simulation software provides an opportunity to teach, understand and examine the pharmacokinetics of volatile anesthetics. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a cardiac output and alveolar ventilation matched Gas Man model and to compare its predictive performance with the standard pharmacokinetic model using patient data.Therefore, patient data from volatile anesthesia were successively compared to simulated administration of desflurane and sevoflurane for the standard and a parameter-matched simulation model with modified alveolar ventilation and cardiac output. We calculated the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) between measured and calculated induction, maintenance and elimination and the expiratory decrement times during emergence and recovery for the standard and the parameter-matched model.During induction, RMSDs for the standard Gas Man simulation model were higher than for the parameter-matched Gas Man simulation model [induction (desflurane), standard: 1.8 (0.4) % Atm, parameter-matched: 0.9 (0.5) % Atm., P = .001; induction (sevoflurane), standard: 1.2 (0.9) % Atm, parameter-matched: 0.4 (0.4) % Atm, P = .029]. During elimination, RMSDs for the standard Gas Man simulation model were higher than for the parameter-matched Gas Man simulation model [elimination (desflurane), standard: 0.7 (0.6) % Atm, parameter-matched: 0.2 (0.2) % Atm, P = .001; elimination (sevoflurane), standard: 0.7 (0.5) % Atm, parameter-matched: 0.2 (0.2) % Atm, P = .008]. The RMSDs during the maintenance of anesthesia and the expiratory decrement times during emergence and recovery showed no significant differences between the patient and simulated data for both simulation models.Gas Man simulation software predicts expiratory concentrations of desflurane and sevoflurane in humans with good accuracy, especially when compared to models for intravenous anesthetics. Enhancing the standard model by ventilation and hemodynamic input variables increases the predictive performance of the simulation model. In most patients and clinical scenarios, the predictive performance of the standard Gas Man simulation model will be high enough to estimate pharmacokinetics of desflurane and sevoflurane with appropriate accuracy.

123

We aimed to examine the feasibility of our newly-developed, integrated, and high-intensity individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for treatment-resistant chronic pain.