Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Medicine


Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Wine, High-intensity interval training, Interval training, Long slow distance


Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK), where both the epithelium and stroma are removed in a single-step, is a relatively new procedure of laser refractive error correction. This study compares the 3-month results of myopia and compound myopic astigmatism correction by tPRK or conventional alcohol-assisted PRK (aaPRK).This prospective, nonrandomized, case-control study recruited 148 consecutive patients; 93 underwent tPRK (173 eyes) and 55 aaPRK (103 eyes). Refractive results, predictability, safety, and efficacy were evaluated during the 3-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE).Mean preoperative MRSE was -4.30 ± 1.72 D and -4.33 ± 1.96 D, respectively (P = 0.87). The 3-month follow-up rate was 82.1% in the tPRK group (n = 145) and 86.4% in aaPRK group (n = 90), P = 0.81. Postoperative UDVA was 20/20 or better in 97% and 94% of eyes, respectively (P = 0.45). In the tPRK and aaPRK groups, respectively, 13% and 21% of eyes lost 1 line of CDVA, and 30% and 31% gained 1 or 2 lines (P = 0.48). Mean postoperative MRSE was -0.14 ± 0.26 D in the tPRK group and -0.12 ± 0.20 D in the aaPRK group (P = 0.9). The correlation between attempted versus achieved MRSE was equally high in both groups.Single-step transepithelial PRK and conventional PRK provide very similar results 3 months postoperatively. These procedures are predictable, effective, and safe for correction of myopia and compound myopic astigmatism.

Concepts: Visual acuity, Myopia, Lens, Eyeglass prescription, Refractive error, Photorefractive keratectomy


Colonization and infection by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are increasingly reported.We conducted a 5-year prospective cohort surveillance study in a tertiary NICU of the hospital “Paolo Giaccone,” Palermo, Italy. Our objectives were to describe incidence and trends of MDR GNB colonization and the characteristics of the most prevalent organisms and to identify the risk factors for colonization. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were prospectively collected. Active surveillance cultures (ASCs) were obtained weekly. Clusters of colonization by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by conventional and molecular epidemiological tools.During the study period, 1152 infants were enrolled in the study. Prevalences of colonization by MDR GNB, ESBL-producing GNB and multiple species/genera averaged, respectively, 28.8%, 11.7%, and 3.7%. Prevalence and incidence density of colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing GNB showed an upward trend through the surveillance period. Rates of ESBL-producing E coli and K pneumoniae colonization showed wide fluctuations peaking over the last 2 years. The only independent variables associated with colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing organisms and multiple colonization were, respectively, the days of NICU stay (odds ratio [OR] 1.041), the days of exposure to ampicillin-sulbactam (OR 1.040), and the days of formula feeding (OR 1.031). Most clusters of E coli and K pneumoniae colonization were associated with different lineages. Ten out of 12 clusters had an outborn infant as their index case.Our study confirms that MDR GNB are an increasing challenge to NICUs. The universal once-a-week approach allowed us to understand the epidemiology of MDR GNB, to timely detect new clones and institute contact precautions, and to assess risk factors. Collection of these data can be an important tool to optimize antimicrobials use and control the emergence and dissemination of resistances in NICU.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Intensive care medicine, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, Prevalence, Gram negative bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria


Rehabilitation for paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) has been indicated as necessary. However, there are only a few reports on rehabilitation in PCD. We describe the course of physical and cognitive functions and activities of daily living (ADL) in a patient with PCD and examine the effect of rehabilitation, along with a review of relevant literature.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Pleural effusion


Salmonella osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of salmonella infection, especially the salmonella vertebral osteomyelitis (SVO).


Histamine H2 antagonists (H2RAs) have long been suggested to have beneficial effects on congestive heart failure (CHF). However, full agreement about the cardioprotective effects of H2RAs is still not reached yet. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the effects of H2RAs on myocardial function in CHF patients by meta-analysis.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Cardiology, Heart failure, Effect, Meta-analysis


Currently, the use of double-lumen irrigation-suction tube for drainage has become increasingly more common. However, the insertion process is complex, and the position of the double cannula placed in this manner is not accurate. We developed a method for placing the drainage tube and use it in the treatment of an abdominal infection.

Concepts: Scientific method, The Double


Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) are 2 conditions in which pulmonary hypertension (PH) can develop.We retrospectively analyzed the probability of PH in case of 83 patients (69 SSc and 14 MCTD). The European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society (ESC/ERS) echocardiographic guidelines of 2015 were used for the evaluation.On the basis of an echocardiography, the patients were divided into 2 subgroups: patients with elevated probability of PH (EP) (n = 16) versus the group with a low probability of PH (LP) (n = 67). Of the 16 patients in the EP group, 15 were SSc patients and 1 was an MCTD patient, respectively, that is, 21.7% and 7.1% of all patients. Of the 16 patients with EP, 10 with SSc had right-heart catheterization, which excluded PH in 7 patients; hence, PH was estimated to be 11.6% in the SSc group. The distribution of the individual causes of PH was arterial PH 2.9%, PH associated with interstitial lung disease 4.3%, PH associated with left ventricular disease 1.5%, and PH of unknown origin 2.9%. Further, there was a significant difference between EP and LP in the incidence of the right bundle branch block in standard electrocardiography, left atrial and right ventricular dimension, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and Doppler-derived tricuspid lateral annular systolic velocity (S') in echocardiography.Echocardiography, particularly those evaluating the parameters included in the ESC/ERS guidelines of 2015, appears to be a useful tool in the detection of patients with a high PH probability. Additional tissue Doppler echocardiography seems to be a good option.


Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare vascular disorder consisting of multifocal venous malformations. Delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis frequently occurs in patients without typical cutaneous lesions or gastrointestinal bleeding symptoms. This article reports a 10-year case of delayed diagnosis of BRBNS detected by capsule endoscopy.


Malakoplakia is a rare disease characterized by the presence of nongranulomatous macrophage infiltration. In most cases, it affects the urinary tract. Malakoplakia can cause acute kidney injury when it is localized in the kidneys.