SciCombinator

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Journal: Medecine et sante tropicales

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Context. This study was conducted at the National Tuberculosis Center in Burkina Faso from October 2007 through May 2008. Objective. Our objective was to compare the diagnostic performance of three staining methods: Kinyoun, auramine O, and Ziehl-Neelsen. Methods. Ziehl-Neelsen staining served as the reference method to assess the diagnostic performance of Kinyoun and auramine O staining. In all, 616 sputum smears from 233 patients were read with each method to detect acid-fast bacilli. SPSS was used for data analysis. Results. The results of auramine O staining showed positive diagnoses in 15.9% of the samples; sensitivity was 100%, specificity 95.6%, and the positive and negative predictive values 75.7% and 100% respectively. Kinyoun staining produced a positive diagnosis rate of 12%, sensitivity of 96.4%, specificity of 99.5%, and positive and negative predictive values of 96.4% and 99.5%. Conclusion. Our study indicates that auramine O staining had a better sensitivity for detecting acid-fast bacilli than Kinyoun staining. Accordingly, the use of auramine O staining should increase the detection rate for pulmonary tuberculosis in Burkina Faso.

Concepts: Negative predictive value, Diagnosis, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Burkina Faso, Staining, Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Acid-fast

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The authors report the results of parasitological analyses of stool samples in N'Djamena (Chad) since 1963 and in Garoua (North Cameroon) since 1990. The number of positive stool examinations has fallen, with a significant decline in helminthiases, although the level of protozoan infections has remained essentially the same.

Concepts: Bacteria, Intestinal parasite, Protozoa, Chad, Cameroon, Protozoan infection

27

Colonic ameboma is a rare inflammatory pseudo-tumor of the colon that can mimic cancer development. This case was located in the cecum and appeared malignant from a macroscopic view. Accordingly a right hemicolectomy was performed, followed by an end-to-side ileocolic anastomosis. The pathology study enabled us to correct the diagnosis and affirm its amebic origin.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Pathology, Digestive system, Colon, Large intestine, Cecum, Ascending colon

27

Plasmodium knowlesi is typically found in macaques and has recently been recognized as the fifth Plasmodium species to cause malaria in humans. Several cases of P. knowlesi malaria have been reported in people in Southeast Asia. Most cases are simple but approximately one in 10 patients develops complications. The morphology of P. knowlesi parasites in human infections closely resembles that of Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium falciparum, so a molecular method is the optimum diagnostic procedure. The treatment of choice for uncomplicated P. knowlesi malaria is oral chloroquine, whereas severe infection should be treated with intravenous quinine.

Concepts: Immune system, Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium, Plasmodium vivax, Quinine, Apicomplexa, Plasmodium knowlesi

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The dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine combination is an antimalarial agent newly available in Europe. It is an artemisinin-combined therapy (ACT) that has been used for more than 10 years in malaria-endemic areas and is recommended since 2010 by the WHO as a first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. In Europe, it has recently been authorized for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in adults, children, and infants aged 6 months or older and weighing at least 5 kg. Its efficacy is similar to the combination of artemether and lumefantrine, and the regimen is easier. The tolerability profile is nearly the same as the other ACTs. Prolongation of the QT interval appears to be greater than with the artemether-lumefantrine combination in the first 48 hours of treatment, although no clinical consequences have been described. This side effect requires the use of electrocardiographic monitoring in some patients. A risk management plan has been set up by the manufacturer.

Concepts: Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium, Quinine, Artemisinin, Antimalarial drug, Antimalarial agents, Lumefantrine

26

We evaluated the outcome of treatment of uterine synechiae (or adhesions, also known as Asherman syndrome) by cervical dilatation and sequential estrogen and progestogen administration for three months. This retrospective cohort study examined records of 86 women with infertility or menstrual disorders or both and treated from October 2004 to November 2011 for synechiae diagnosed by hysterosalpingography. The data analyzed included age, presenting complaint, and treatment outcome. During the study period, 86 women were seen for uterine synechiae but only 81 files could be included. The patients' mean age was 25.52 (range: 19-40 years), with 37% in the age group of 25-29 years. Of these 82 women, 71 reported menstrual disorders and 60 infertility. After treatment, 11/60 (18%) became pregnant and 35/71(49%) recovered normal menstrual profiles. The reference treatment for uterine synechiae is hysteroscopy, which yields good results. In poor settings, however, hysteroscopy remains inaccessible, and the old method of cervical dilation and sequential estrogen and progestogen therapy is an acceptable alternative.

Concepts: Cohort study, Pregnancy, Childbirth, Uterus, Estrogen, Menstrual cycle, Endometrium, Asherman's syndrome

0

Our aims were to study the epidemiological, clinical, and parasitological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the dermatology department of the Aristide Le Dantec hospital. This retrospective study reviewed records of cases treated over a 4-year period (from April 2010 through April 2014) at the HALD Dermatology department. The study included all patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis during the study period. The diagnostic criteria were clinical, parasitological, and histological. The study included 38 patients, corresponding to 9.5 cases per year. Patients' average age was 25 years (4-65 years) and the sex ratio was 1.6. The mean time from symptom outset to consultation was 3.2 months. The disease was located in limbs in 23 cases (63.8%), the face in 6 cases (16.6%), and disseminated in 9 (19.6%). The clinical presentation was ulcerated and crusted in 17 patients (44.7%), sporotrichoid in 13 (28.9%), pseudo-lepromatous in 4 (10.5%), and lupoid in 3 cases (7.9 %). It included warts, mucosa, and tropical sores (Aleppo boils) in all cases. We observed 3 cases associated with HIV; one had a pseudo-lepromatous presentation and resulted from immune restoration syndrome, while two patients had clinical forms of associations: ulcerative and crusted lesions associated with mucosal leishmaniasis in a 55-year-old patient, and cutaneous ulcerative, lupoid, and crusted multifocal (cutaneous, medullary, and lymph nodes) lesions in a 4-year-old infected with Leishmania infantum. Crusted ulcerative cutaneous leishmaniasis is the predominant form of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Infection with HIV can be an important factor in clinical and parasitological atypia.

Concepts: Immune system, Hospital, Infection, Arithmetic mean, Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania, Leishmania infantum

0

To determine the proportion of cancer mortality seen in the urology department of a teaching hospital in sub-Saharan Africa and to identify the contributing factors. This 10-year retrospective study took place in the urology department of the Sylvanus Olympio Teaching Hospital of Lomé (Togo) and analyzed the records of patients who died of cancer from January 2006 through December 2015. During the study period, 94 deaths were recorded in the department, 84% of them due to a urological cancer. The mean age of patients was 62 years,- and there was a significant male predominance with a sex ratio of 4.3. Prostate cancer was the most common cause of death, accounting for 49 (62%) cases. The mean duration of symptoms was 2.4 months. At diagnosis, 75.9% of patients were metastatic and 66% had comorbidities, such as high blood pressure or diabetes. Palliative treatment was instituted for 87.3% of patients. Deterioration of their general condition was the immediate cause of death in 71% of cases. Urological cancers remain a challenge for specialists in Togo, especially because they are characterized by late presentation with diagnosis at the metastatic stage. Their prognosis is aggravated by the presence of comorbidities.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Death, Lung cancer, Obesity, Prostate cancer, Urology

0

To evaluate the maternal and perinatal prognosis of obstetric hemorrhages in the maternity department of the Yalgado Ouédraogo University Hospital of Ouagadougou. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the four-month period from April through July 2015 included all women consulting on an emergency basis for vaginal bleeding during pregnancy at or after 28 weeks of gestation, or during labor, delivery, or the postpartum period. Obstetric hemorrhages accounted for 6% of admissions. The women’s mean age was 27.7 years; 92.5% lived with a partner, and 43.1% were not employed outside the home. A retroplacental hematoma was the leading cause of antepartum hemorrhage, followed by placenta previa. Soft-tissue laceration was the primary cause of postpartum hemorrhage, accounting for 28.4% of these. Maternal morbidity was dominated by anemia with a fatality rate of 5.6%. With six twin pregnancies, there were 166 births : 60 stillbirths, and 106 live births (63.9%). The various neonatal morbidities encountered were mainly growth restriction (33.1%), prematurity (19.9%), and neonatal distress (19.3%). Obstetric hemorrhage, which affects young women who are often uneducated, unemployed, and of relatively low parity, is a serious public health problem. Both the maternal fatality rate and the perinatal mortality rate remain very high.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Embryo, Fetus, Demography, Obstetrics, Gestational age, Perinatal mortality

0

Tuberculous meningitis, a serious disease with high mortality and morbidity, remains frequent in countries with endemic tuberculosis. Its non-specific presentation often delays the introduction of appropriate treatment. Its definitive diagnosis requires isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from cerebrospinal fluid, although this test may be negative without conclusively ruling out this diagnosis. A presumptive diagnosis should be reached as soon as possible through a body of clinical evidence, including the lumbar puncture findings. Brain computed tomography (CT) with and without contrast medium injection is helpful for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and its complications. We discuss the features of CT and their value in relation to a case of tuberculous meningitis in Djibouti, as well as the role of CT in managing this disease.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Radiography, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Cerebrospinal fluid, Meningitis, Tuberculous meningitis, Lumbar puncture