Journal: Mayo Clinic proceedings
To investigate the relationship between maximal exercise capacity measured before severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and hospitalization due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Hyperkalemia is an electrolyte abnormality with potentially life-threatening consequences. Despite various guidelines, no universally accepted consensus exists on best practices for hyperkalemia monitoring, with variations in precise potassium (K+) concentration thresholds or for the management of acute or chronic hyperkalemia. Based on the available evidence, this review identifies several critical issues and unmet needs with regard to the management of hyperkalemia. Real-world studies are needed for a better understanding of the prevalence of hyperkalemia outside the clinical trial setting. There is a need to improve effective management of hyperkalemia, including classification and K+ monitoring, when to reinitiate previously discontinued renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor (RAASi) therapy, and when to use oral K+-binding agents. Monitoring serum K+ should be individualized; however, increased frequency of monitoring should be considered for patients with chronic kidney disease, diabetes, heart failure, or a history of hyperkalemia and for those receiving RAASi therapy. Recent clinical studies suggest that the newer K+ binders (patiromer sorbitex calcium and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate) may facilitate optimization of RAASi therapy. Enhancing the knowledge of primary care physicians and internists with respect to the safety profiles of these newer K+ binders may increase confidence in managing patients with hyperkalemia. Lastly, the availability of newer K+-binding agents requires further study to establish whether stringent dietary K+ restrictions are needed in patients receiving K+-binder therapy. Individualized monitoring of serum K+ among patients with an increased risk of hyperkalemia and the use of newer K+-binding agents may allow for optimization of RAASi therapy and more effective management of hyperkalemia.
Management of the global crisis of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic requires detailed appraisal of evidence to support clear, actionable, and consistent public health messaging. The use of cloth masks for general public use is being debated, and is in flux. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and Google for articles reporting the filtration properties of flat cloth or cloth masks. We reviewed the reference lists of relevant articles to identify further articles and identified articles through social and conventional news media. We found 25 articles. Study of protection for the wearer used healthy volunteers, or used a manikin wearing a mask, with airflow to simulate different breathing rates. Studies of protection of the environment, also known as source control, used convenience samples of healthy volunteers. The design and execution of the studies was generally rigorously described. Many descriptions of cloth lacked the detail required for reproducibility; no study provided all the expected details of material, thread count, weave, and weight. Some of the homemade mask designs were reproducible. Successful masks were made of muslin at 100 threads per inch (TPI) in 3 to 4 layers (4-layer muslin or a muslin-flannel-muslin sandwich), tea towels (also known as dish towels), made using 1 layer (2 layers would be expected to be better), and good-quality cotton T-shirts in 2 layers (with a stitched edge to prevent stretching). In flat-cloth experiments, linen tea towels, 600-TPI cotton in 2 layers, and 600-TPI cotton with 90-TPI flannel performed well but 80-TPI cotton in 2 layers did not. We therefore recommend cotton or flannel at least 100 TPI, at least 2 layers. More layers, 3 or 4, will provide increased filtration but there is a trade-off in that more layers increases the resistance to breathing. Although this is not a systematic review, we included all the articles that we identified in an unbiased way. We did not include gray literature or preprints. A plain language summary of these data and recommendations, as well as information on making, wearing and cleaning cloth masks is available at www.clothmasks.ca.
To evaluate whether a digital surveillance model using Google Trends is feasible for obtaining accurate data on coronavirus disease 2019 and whether accurate predictions can be made regarding new cases.
To assess the efficacy and safety of lenzilumab in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia.
To investigate the extent to which antibiotic exposure in the first 2 years of life is associated with the risk of immunological, metabolic, and neurobehavioral health conditions with childhood onset.
To address the issue of limited national data on the prevalence and distribution of underlying conditions among COVID-19 deaths between sexes and across age groups.
To analyze the cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden in hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of coronavirus from the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 era in the United States.
To examine the combined and stratified associations of physical activity and adiposity measures, modelled as body mass index (BMI), abdominal adiposity (waist circumference), and body fat percentage (BF) with all-cause mortality.
To study whether combining vital signs and electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis can improve early prognostication.