SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Mayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo Clinic

173

Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is unique among the rheumatic diseases because it presents the challenge of managing a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease with a widespread obliterative vasculopathy of small arteries that is associated with varying degrees of tissue fibrosis. The hallmark of scleroderma is clinical heterogeneity with subsets that vary in the degree of disease expression, organ involvement, and ultimate prognosis. Thus, the term scleroderma is used to describe patients who have common manifestations that link them together, whereas a highly variable clinical course exists that spans from mild and subtle findings to aggressive, life-threatening multisystem disease. The physician needs to carefully characterize each patient to understand the specific manifestations and level of disease activity to decide appropriate treatment. This is particularly important in treating a patient with scleroderma because there is no treatment that has been proven to modify the overall disease course, although therapy that targets specific organ involvement early before irreversible damage occurs improves both quality of life and survival. This review describes our approach as defined by evidence, expert opinion, and our experience treating patients. Scleroderma is a multisystem disease with variable expression; thus, any treatment plan must be holistic, yet at the same time focus on the dominant organ disease. The goal of therapy is to improve quality of life by minimizing specific organ involvement and subsequent life-threatening disease. At the same time the many factors that alter daily function need to be addressed, including nutrition, pain, deconditioning, musculoskeletal disuse, comorbid conditions, and the emotional aspects of the disease, such as fear, depression, and the social withdrawal caused by disfigurement.

Concepts: Medicine, Diseases and disorders, Rheumatology, Autoimmune disease, Lupus erythematosus, Systemic disease, Scleroderma, Systemic scleroderma

59

To identify medical practices that offer no net benefits.

Concepts: Limit of a function

30

An urgent need in American health care is improving quality and efficiency while controlling costs. One promising management approach implemented by some leading health care institutions is Lean, a quality improvement philosophy and set of principles originated by the Toyota Motor Company. Health care cases reveal that Lean is as applicable in complex knowledge work as it is in assembly-line manufacturing. When well executed, Lean transforms how an organization works and creates an insatiable quest for improvement. In this article, we define Lean and present 6 principles that constitute the essential dynamic of Lean management: attitude of continuous improvement, value creation, unity of purpose, respect for front-line workers, visual tracking, and flexible regimentation. Health care case studies illustrate each principle. The goal of this article is to provide a template for health care leaders to use in considering the implementation of the Lean management system or in assessing the current state of implementation in their organizations.

Concepts: Health care, Management, Leadership, Lean manufacturing, Toyota Production System, Hybrid electric vehicle, Toyota, Toyota Racing

29

Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is defined by a heart rate increment of 30 beats/min or more within 10 minutes of standing or head-up tilt in the absence of orthostatic hypotension; the standing heart rate is often 120 beats/min or higher. POTS manifests with symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and excessive sympathoexcitation. The pathophysiology of POTS is heterogeneous and includes impaired sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction, excessive sympathetic drive, volume dysregulation, and deconditioning. POTS is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of chronic unexplained symptoms, such as inappropriate sinus tachycardia, chronic fatigue, chronic dizziness, or unexplained spells in otherwise healthy young individuals. Many patients with POTS also report symptoms not attributable to orthostatic intolerance, including those of functional gastrointestinal or bladder disorders, chronic headache, fibromyalgia, and sleep disturbances. In many of these cases, cognitive and behavioral factors, somatic hypervigilance associated with anxiety, depression, and behavioral amplification contribute to symptom chronicity. The aims of evaluation in patients with POTS are to exclude cardiac causes of inappropriate tachycardia; elucidate, if possible, the most likely pathophysiologic basis of postural intolerance; assess for the presence of treatable autonomic neuropathies; exclude endocrine causes of a hyperadrenergic state; evaluate for cardiovascular deconditioning; and determine the contribution of emotional and behavioral factors to the patient’s symptoms. Management of POTS includes avoidance of precipitating factors, volume expansion, physical countermaneuvers, exercise training, pharmacotherapy (fludrocortisone, midodrine, β-blockers, and/or pyridostigmine), and behavioral-cognitive therapy. A literature search of PubMed for articles published from January 1, 1990, to June 15, 2012, was performed using the following terms (or combination of terms): POTS; postural tachycardia syndrome, orthostatic; orthostatic; syncope; sympathetic; baroreceptors; vestibulosympathetic; hypovolemia; visceral pain; chronic fatigue; deconditioning; headache; Chiari malformation; Ehlers-Danlos; emotion; amygdala; insula; anterior cingulate; periaqueductal gray; fludrocortisone; midodrine; propranolol; β-adrenergic; and pyridostigmine. Studies were limited to those published in English. Other articles were identified from bibliographies of the retrieved articles.

Concepts: Hypertension, Cardiology, Orthostatic hypotension, Vasoconstriction, Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Arnold-Chiari malformation, Orthostatic intolerance

29

To determine continuing medical education (CME) course participants' use of social media (SM) and their attitudes about the value of SM for enhancing CME education and to examine associations between participants' characteristics and attitudes toward SM.

Concepts: Sociology

28

27

Recently, there have been important advances in the understanding of the pathophysiologic features, assessment, and management of patients with a newly diagnosed idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Myositis-specific autoantibodies have been identified to define patient subgroups and offer prognostic implications. Similarly, proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 and type 1 interferon-dependent genes, may serve as potential biomarkers of disease activity in adult and juvenile patients with dermatomyositis (DM). Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging has become an important modality for the assessment of muscle inflammation in adult IIM and juvenile DM. Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies also are being recognized as a subset of IIM triggered by medications such as statins. However, confusion exists regarding effective management strategies for patients with IIM because of the lack of large-scale, randomized, controlled studies. This review focuses primarily on our current management and treatment algorithms for IIM including the care of pediatric patients with juvenile DM. For this review, we conducted a search of PubMed and MEDLINE for articles published from January 1, 1970, to December 1, 2011, using the following search terms: idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, juvenile dermatomyositis, sporadic inclusion body myositis, inclusion body myositis, inflammatory myositis, myositis, myopathies, pathogenesis, therapy, and treatment. Studies published in English were selected for inclusion in our review as well as additional articles identified from bibliographies.

Concepts: Inflammation, Inflammations, Creatine kinase, Inclusion body myositis, Myopathy, Dermatomyositis, Exercise therapy for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, Myositis

21

To evaluate the association between coffee consumption and mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease.

Concepts: The Association

8

To examine 45-year trends in time use and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in a nationally representative sample of US mothers.

Concepts: Activity, Energeia

8

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of L-carnitine compared with placebo or control on morbidity and mortality in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 13 controlled trials (N=3629) was conducted to determine the effects of L-carnitine vs placebo or control on mortality, ventricular arrhythmias (VAs), angina, heart failure, and reinfarction. These trials were identified via searches of the Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and Excerpta Medica (Embase) databases between May 1, 2012, and August 31, 2012. RESULTS: Compared with placebo or control, L-carnitine was associated with a significant 27% reduction in all-cause mortality (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54-0.99; P=.05; risk ratio [RR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.60-1.00; P=.05), a highly significant 65% reduction in VAs (RR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.21-0.58; P<.0001), and a significant 40% reduction in the development of angina (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.50-0.72; P<.00001), with no reduction in the development of heart failure (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.67-1.09; P=.21) or myocardial reinfarction (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.41-1.48; P=.45). CONCLUSION: Compared with placebo or control, L-carnitine is associated with a 27% reduction in all-cause mortality, a 65% reduction in VAs, and a 40% reduction in anginal symptoms in patients experiencing an acute myocardial infarction. Further study with large randomized controlled trials of this inexpensive and safe therapy in the modern era is warranted.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Medical statistics, Cardiology, Cardiovascular disease, Randomized controlled trial