SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

127

Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) provides essential cross-sectional imaging data in patients with suspected pleural malignancy (PM). The performance of CT in routine practice may be lower than in previously reported research. We assessed this relative to ‘real-life’ factors including use of early arterial-phase contrast enhancement (by CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA)) and non-specialist radiology reporting.

Concepts: Medical terms, Medical imaging, Radiography, CT pulmonary angiogram, Report, Radiology, The Colbert Report

120

Resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) with activating EGFR mutations generally involve development of acquired secondary or tertiary EGFR mutations, such as T790M or C797S. However, case reports have demonstrated that actionable receptor tyrosine kinase fusions such as EML4-ALK, CCDC6-RET, and FGFR3-TACC3 can potentially confer resistance to EGFR TKIs. We seeked to identify the prevalence of FGFR3-TACC3 fusion transcripts as resistance mechanism to EGFR TKIs. Hybrid-capture based genomic profiling was performed on FFPE tissue samples and circulating tumor DNA isolated from peripheral whole blood in the course of clinical care. We performed a comprehensive survey of 17,319 clinical NSCLC samples (14,170 adenocarcinomas and 3149 NSCLC not otherwise specified (NOS)) and identified 5 cases of FGFR3-TACC3 containing the intact kinase domain of FGFR3 and the coiled-coil domain of TACC3 emerging after treatment with EGFR TKIs, including one previously reported index case. Of the 4 novel cases of FGFR3-TACC3, one emerged after erlotinib, one after afatinib, one after osimertinib, and one after ASP8273. These 5 cases of FGFR3-TACC3 fusions acquired post-EGFR TKI, while rare, indicate that FGFR3-TACC3 is a recurrent resistance mechanism, which can bypass EGFR blockade by all generations of EGFR TKIs in NSCLC. Routine re-biopsy and genomic profiling using platforms capable of detecting kinase fusions has the potential to inform new therapeutic strategies for patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC progressing on TKIs.

Concepts: DNA, Cancer, Mutation, Signal transduction, Lung cancer, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Receptor tyrosine kinase, Protein kinase

28

BACKGROUND: Several studies reported rib fractures following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for peripheral lung tumors. We tried to investigate risk factors and grading system for rib fractures after SBRT. METHODS: Of 375 primary or metastatic lung tumors (296 patients) which were treated with SBRT at the Asan Medical Center (2006-2009), 126 lesions (118 patients) were adjacent to the chest-wall (<1cm) and followed-up with chest computed tomography (CT) for >6months; these were investigated in the present retrospective study. Three to four fractional doses of 10-20Gy were delivered to 85-90% iso-dose volume of the isocenter dose. Rib fracture grade was defined from follow-up CT scans as the appearance of a fracture line (Gr1), dislocation of the fractured rib by more than half the rib diameter (Gr2), or the appearance of adjacent soft tissue edema (Gr3). Chest wall pain was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v3.0. Correlations between dose-volume data and the development of rib fracture were then analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank tests, and chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 69years (range: 19-90). Over a median follow-up period of 22months (range: 7-62), 48 cases of rib fracture were confirmed. Median time to rib fracture was 17months (range: 4-52). The 2-year actuarial risk of rib fracture was 42.4%. Maximal grade was Gr1 (n=28), Gr2 (n=8), or Gr3 (n=15). The incidence of moderate to severe chest wall pain (CTCAE Gr≥2) increased with maximal fracture grade (17.5% for Gr0-1 and 60.9% for Gr2-3; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis identified female gender, lateral location, and the dose to the 8cc of the chest wall as significant prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Female gender and lateral tumor location were clinical risk factors for rib fracture in the present study. Efforts to decrease chest wall dose should be made to reduce the risk of the rib fracture, particularly in high-risk patients.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Bone fracture, Fracture, Lung cancer, Bone fractures, Rib fracture

26

Whether there is a difference in the exposure-response slope for lung cancer between mining workers and textile workers exposed to chrysotile has not been well documented. This study was carried out to evaluate exposure-specific lung cancer risks in Chinese chrysotile textile workers and mining workers.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Tobacco smoking, Squamous cell carcinoma, Asbestos

22

Tuberculosis (TB) and lung cancer are important global health threats, each accounting for 1.6 million deaths yearly. The incidence of both conditions remains high in many developing countries, especially in East Asia. There is now epidemiologic evidence that pre-existing TB poses an increased lung cancer risk. The clinical diagnosis of co-existent TB and lung cancer relies on symptoms of infection, typical radiological features and microbiological confirmation, and remains a challenge in both early and late stage lung cancer. The presence of histological granulomatous inflammation in resected lung specimens is not exclusively indicative of TB. The widely accepted systemic chemotherapy and immunotherapy for treating lung cancer are highly relevant to the occurrence of TB and its management. This review addresses the clinical approach to the diagnosis and treatment of TB that co-exists with lung cancer.

22

There is little evidence regarding the use of chemotherapy as part of multimodality treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We aimed to determine whether, in those patients fit for chemotherapy, a delay in this treatment affected survival.

Concepts: Cancer, Chemotherapy, Affect, Mesothelioma

22

Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive disease with dismal prognosis despite multimodal treatment including chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy. At progression it is possible to provide systemic second-line treatment but its effects are limited. Herein we report two patient cases with mesothelioma who received second-line chemotherapy with the combination of cisplatin and the novel compound lurbinectedin. The combination showed promising activity in both cases with manageable toxicity. We discuss the results of this regime in the light of historical as well as emerging data in mesothelioma.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Medical terms, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Mesothelioma

19

Mutation in the PIK3CA gene is reported frequent in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, but its potential prognostic role is still obscure. We have studied the prognostic importance of PIK3CA mutations as well as the relation to other markers in a large number of early stage lung cancers of squamous carcinoma subtype.

Concepts: DNA, Cancer, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Types of cancer, Carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium

18

Reliable epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing techniques are required to identify eligible patients with EGFR mutation/T790M positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), for treatment with osimertinib (AZD9291), an oral, potent, irreversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) selective for EGFR-TKI-sensitizing and T790M resistance mutations over wild-type EGFR. There is no current consensus regarding the best method to detect EGFR T790M mutations. The aim of this study was to describe the concordance between local testing, which used a variety of methods, and central testing, using the cobas(®) EGFR Mutation Test, for EGFR-sensitizing mutations and the T790M resistance mutation.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Signal transduction, Lung cancer, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epidermal growth factor, Growth factor

11

Plasma genotyping represents an opportunity for convenient detection of clinically actionable mutations in advanced cancer patients, such has been well-documented in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Oncogenic gene fusions are complex variants that may be more challenging to detect by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Rigorous evaluation of plasma NGS assays in the detection of fusions is needed to maximize clinical utility.