SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Lipids in health and disease

189

BACKGROUND: Given that acne is a rare condition in societies with higher consumption of omega-3 (n-3) relative to omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids, supplementation with n-3 may suppress inflammatory cytokine production and thereby reduce acne severity. METHODS: 13 individuals with inflammatory acne were given three grams of fish oil containing 930 mg of EPA to their unchanged diet and existing acne remedies for 12 weeks. Acne was assessed using an overall severity grading scale, total inflammatory lesion counts, and colorimetry. FINDINGS: There was no significant change in acne grading and inflammatory counts at week 12 compared to baseline. However, there was a broad range of response to the intervention on an individual basis. The results showed that acne severity improved in 8 individuals, worsened in 4, and remained unchanged in 1. Interestingly, among the individuals who showed improvement, 7 were classified as having moderate to severe acne at baseline, while 3 of the 4 whose acne deteriorated were classified as having mild acne. CONCLUSION: There is some evidence that fish oil supplementation is associated with an improvement in overall acne severity, especially for individuals with moderate to severe acne. Divergent responses to fish oil in our pilot study indicates that dietary and supplemental lipids are worthy of further investigation in acne.

Concepts: Nutrition, Fatty acid, Essential fatty acid, Omega-3 fatty acid, Fat, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Omega-6 fatty acid, Fish oil

169

The objective of the study is a comparative evaluation of flavone isolated from Mucuna pruriens and coumarin isolated from Ionidium suffruticosum was assessed for the hypolipidemic activity in rats fed with high fat diet. The acute toxicity study was found that flavone (M.pruriens) and coumarin (I.suffruticosum) are safe up to 100mg/kg, so one tenth of this dose (10mg/kg) was consider as a evaluation dose. High fat diet group of rats showed significant (p<0.001) elevation in plasma total and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids. Administration of flavone (M. pruriens) and coumarin isolated from (I.suffruticosum) at the dose of 10mg/kg b.wt/day along with high fat diet significantly (p<0.001) prevented the rise in the plasma total and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids than that of other extracts. However, treatment of coumarin isolated from (I.suffruticosum) had showed more cardio protective effect against hyperlipidemia than that of flavone (M.pruriens).

Concepts: Cholesterol, Fatty acid, Statin, Toxicology, Acute accent, Glycerol, Acute toxicity, Mucuna pruriens

168

BACKGROUND: Pelargonium graveolens (P. graveolens) L. is an aromatic and medicinal plant belonging to the geraniacea family. RESULTS: The chemical compositions of the essential oil as well as the in vitro antimicrobial activities were investigated. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 42 compounds. Linallol L, Citronellol, Geraniol, 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, formate and Selinene were identified as the major components. The tested oil and organic extracts exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against a panel of microorganisms with diameter inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 34 mm and MICs values from 0.039 to10 mg/ml. The investigation of the phenolic content showed that EtOAc, MeOH and water extracts had the highest phenolic contents. CONCLUSION: Overall, results presented here suggest that the essential oil and organic extracts of P. graveolens possesses antimicrobial and properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Water, Essential oil, Oil, Oils, Rose, Rose oil, Pelargonium graveolens

111

Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between dietary fat intake and cardiovascular disease. However, dietary recommendations based on systematic review and meta-analysis might be more credible.

51

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a natural antioxidant, has an important cytoprotective effects in different cells and tissues.

Concepts: Nutrition, Fatty acid, Fatty acids, Essential fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Omega-6 fatty acid, Linoleic acid, Arachidonic acid

23

Nutritional modulation remains central to the management of metabolic syndrome. Intervention with cinnamon in individuals with metabolic syndrome remains sparsely researched.

Concepts: Health, Metabolism, Nutrition, Antioxidant, Obesity, Randomized controlled trial, Control, Asian American

22

Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have grown in prevalence around the world, and recently, related diseases have been considered epidemic. Given the high cost of treatment of obesity/DM-associated diseases, strategies such as dietary manipulation have been widely studied; among them, the whey protein diet has reached popularity because it has been suggested as a strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity and DM in both humans and animals. Among its main actions, the following activities stand out: reduction of serum glucose in healthy individuals, impaired glucose tolerance in DM and obese patients; reduction in body weight; maintenance of muscle mass; increases in the release of anorectic hormones such as cholecystokinin, leptin, and glucagon like-peptide 1 (GLP-1); and a decrease in the orexigenic hormone ghrelin. Furthermore, studies have shown that whey protein can also lead to reductions in blood pressure, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

Concepts: Protein, Metabolism, Nutrition, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Hormone, Obesity, Ghrelin

21

There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Health, Human, Nutrition, Milk, Butter, Personal life

20

Arteriosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and its risk can be independently decreased by regular physical activity. Recently, ASCVD and its risk factors were found to be impacted by the gut microbiota through its diversity, distribution and metabolites. Meanwhile, several experiments demonstrated the relationship between physical exercise and diversity, distribution, metabolite of the gut microbiota as well as its functions on the lipid metabolism and chronic systematic inflammation. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the effects of physical exercise on ASCVD through modulation of the gut microbiota and intestinal function.

Concepts: Bacteria, Metabolism, Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Obesity, Cardiovascular disease, Muscle, Physical exercise

19

Altered immune function during ageing results in increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and other inflammatory mediators. Recently, we have reported that NO production was inhibited by naturally-occurring proteasome inhibitors (quercetin, δ-tocotrienol, and riboflavin) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 mice. In a continuous effort to find more potent, non-toxic, commercially available, naturally-occurring proteasome inhibitors that suppress inflammation, the present study was carried out to describe the inhibition of NF-κB activation and NO, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and iNOS expression by trans-resveratrol, trans-pterostilbene, morin hydrate, and nicotinic acid in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Apoptosis, Inhibitor, Nitric oxide, Proteasome