SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Korean Journal of Spine

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The purpose of this review is the current understanding of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) and proximal junctional failure (PJF) following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. We carried out a systematic search of PubMed for literatures published up to September 2017 with “proximal junctional kyphosis,” “proximal junctional failure,” and “adult spinal deformity” as search terms. A total of 98 literatures were searched. The 37 articles were included in this review. PJK is multifactorial in origin and likely results from variable risk factors. PJF is a progressive form of the PJK spectrum including bony fracture, subluxation between UIV and UIV+1, failure of fixation, neurological deficit, which may require revision surgery for proximal extension of fusion. Soft tissue protections, adequate selection of the UIV, prophylactic rib fixation, hybrid instrumentation such as hooks, vertebral cement augmentation at UIV and UIV+1, adequate selection material of rods and age-appropriate spinopelvic alignment goals are strategies to minimize PJK and PJF. The ability to perform aggressive global realignment of spinal deformities has also led to the discovery of new complications such as the PJK and PJF. Continuous research on PJK and PJF should be proceeded in order to comprehend the pathophysiology of these complications.

Concepts: Natural selection, Varus deformity, Vertebral column, Soft tissue, Search engine optimization, Deformity

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Myelography has been shown to highlight foraminal and lateral recess stenosis more readily than computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It also has the advantage of providing dynamic assessment of stenosis in the loaded spine. The advent of weight-bearing MRI may go some way towards improving assessment of the loaded spine and is less invasive, however availability remains limited. This study evaluates the potential role of myelography and its impact upon surgical decision making.

Concepts: Spin, Medical imaging, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Radiography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Radiology, Diffusion MRI, Virtopsy

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The aim of this study was to formulate an objective clinical and geometric relationship between Cobb angle and the difference between the lengths of convex and concave sides (convexo-concave vertebral difference) of the structural curve in scoliosis. Is it possible to express Cobb angle in such a way that it could be visualized as a length, especially while planning for surgical correction of scoliosis?

Concepts: Manifold, Derivative, Units of measurement, Analytic geometry, Polytope, Convex and Concave, M. C. Escher, Convex geometry

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The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of atlantoaxial fixation on cervical alignment and clinical outcomes in patients with os odontoideum (OO) versus non-os odontoideum (non-OO).

Concepts: Comparison, Comparisons

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Pfirrmann disc grade is a useful scoring tool for evaluating disc degeneration, but normal values according to aging process has not been elucidated. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and pattern of whole spine disc degeneration according to ages and gender differences.

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A 38-year-old man visited our Emergency Department for sudden onset paraplegia that occurred 1 hour ago. He felt a piercing pain in the posterior neck and became paraplegic while he was watching television, lying down on a sofa. Neurological examination showed motor power grades II-III in both arms and grade 0 in both legs. His cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large ruptured disc at the C5-6 level, severely compressing the spinal cord. Emergency anterior cervical discectomy and fusion at C5-6 were performed. Because extensive cord swelling was observed on postoperative MRI, laminoplasty from C3 to C6 was performed 3 days after the initial operation. At a postoperative 8-month follow-up, the motor power was improved to grade III-IV- for both hands and grade IV- for both legs. Nontraumatic cervical disc rupture causing acute paraplegia is a very rare but possible event. Immediate neurologic assessment and thorough imaging studies to allow accurate diagnosis are crucial. Emergency surgical decompression is important and may lead to good neurological outcomes.

Concepts: Brain, X-ray, Medical imaging, Brain tumor, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Neurology, Radiology

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Spinal subarachnoid hematoma (SSH) following diagnostic lumbar puncture is very rare. Generally, SSH is more likely to occur when the patient has coagulopathy or is undergoing anticoagulant therapy. Unlike the usual complications, such as headache, dizziness, and back pain at the needle puncture site, SSH may result in permanent neurologic deficits if not properly treated within a short period of time. An otherwise healthy 43-year-old female with no predisposing factors presented with fever and headache. Diagnostic lumbar puncture was performed under suspicion of acute meningitis. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging was performed due to hypoesthesia below the level of T10 that rapidly progressed after the lumbar puncture. SSH was diagnosed, and high-dose steroid therapy was started. Her neurological symptoms rapidly deteriorated after 12 hours despite the steroids, necessitating emergent decompressive laminectomy and hematoma removal. The patient’s condition improved after the surgery from a preoperative motor score of 1/5 in the right leg and 4/5 in the left leg to brace-free ambulation (motor grade 5/5) 3-month postoperative. The patient was discharged with no neurologic deficits. Critical complications such as SSH can be fatal. Therefore, a patient undergoing lumbar puncture must be carefully observed. A hematoma that convincingly compresses the spinal cord or cauda equina on imaging results requires early surgical decompression and hematoma removal.

Concepts: Medicine, Spinal cord, Neurology, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Cerebrospinal fluid, Meningitis, Lumbar puncture, Cauda equina

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Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are rare epithelial tumors that originate from the thymus gland. Extrathoracic metastases occur in the liver, kidney, and bone in 1% to 15% of patients. Although thymoma and thymic carcinoma exhibit highly aggressive biological behavior, spinal metastasis is rare. We describe a 78-year-old man with left wrist and grasp weakness that occurred 7 days before admission. The patient underwent thymoma surgery 7 years ago and was cured. Magnetic resonance images showed a rim-enhanced mass in the C6-7-T1 epidural space. C6-7-T1 laminectomy was performed and the mass was removed. Histological examination was performed and patient was diagnosed with metastatic thymoma. The previous reported case occurred with involvement of the vertebral body or posterior element, but our case was mostly rim-enhanced and appeared as an abscess and intradural extramedullary tumor.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lung cancer, Medical terms, Thymus, Myasthenia gravis, Thymoma

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Glomangiopericytoma, also referred to as a hemangiopericytoma-like tumor or sinonasal type hemangiopericytoma, is a rare tumor of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus that has never been reported in the spinal cord. Here, we report a case of a 47-year-old man who developed glomangiopericytoma in the thoracic spine. This lesion showed a heterogeneous high signal intensity compared to the spinal cord on a T2-weighted image and an easily enhanced isointense signal on a T1-weighted image.

Concepts: Vertebral column, Thoracic vertebrae

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As medical computer-aided design (CAD) has improved, virtual 3-dimensional medical images have been gaining more easily without any special practice. These images can be applied to various clinical fields. This article illustrates virtual preoperative simulation for excision of spinal tumors using medical CAD software. The software was used directly by the surgeon. The process of virtual preoperative simulation for spinal tumor surgery was found to be not inordinately complicated. And, virtual simulation was helpful in determining surgical steps as well as understanding the surgical anatomy.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Physician, Computer graphics, Computer, Computer-aided design, Computer-aided engineering, Electronic design automation