SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Korean journal of pediatrics

167

Asthma is associated with increased levels of eosinophils in tissues, body fluids, and bone marrow. Elevated levels of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) have been noted in asthma patients. Higher levels of EDN and ECP are also associated with exacerbated asthmatic conditions. Thus, EDN, along with ECP, may aid the diagnosis and monitoring of asthma. Several groups have suggested that EDN is more useful than ECP in evaluating disease severity. This may partially be because of the recoverability of EDN (not sticky, 100% recovery rate), as ECP is a sticky and more highly charged protein. In terms of clinical utility, EDN level is a more accurate biomarker than ECP when analyzing the underlying pathophysiology of asthma. As a monitoring tool, EDN has shown good results in children with asthma as well as other allergic diseases. In children too young to fully participate in lung function tests, EDN levels may be useful as an alter native measurement of eosinophilic inflammation. EDN can also be used in adult patients and in multiple specimen types (e.g., serum, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and nasal lavage fluid). These results are repeatable and reproducible. In conclusion, EDN may be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of asthma/allergic disease.

Concepts: Immune system, Pulmonology, Asthma, Allergy, Bronchoalveolar lavage, Spirometry, Peak flow meter, Eosinophil granulocyte

167

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis and affects many organ systems. It often presents sterile pyuria, microscopic hematuria, and proteinuria due to renal involvement. The aims of this study were to define clinical characteristics of acute KD patients with pyuria and to analyze meaning of pyuria in KD.

Concepts: Nephrology, Vasculitis, Nephrotic syndrome, Arthralgia, Glomerulonephritis, Kawasaki disease, Urinalysis, IgA nephropathy

167

Chronic day-to-day symptoms of orthostatic intolerance are the most notable features of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). However, we have encountered patients with such symptoms and excessive tachycardia but with no symptoms during the tilt-table test (TTT). We aimed to investigate whether POTS patients with chronic orthostatic intolerance always present orthostatic symptoms during the TTT and analyze the factors underlying symptom manifestation during this test.

Concepts: Medical terms, Cardiology, Symptoms, Symptom, Orthostatic hypotension, Post-concussion syndrome, Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, Orthostatic intolerance

135

This study aimed to analyse laboratory values according to fever duration, and evaluate the relationship across these values during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD) to aid in the early diagnosis for early-presenting KD and incomplete KD patients.

135

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyperinflammatory syndrome with many causes, including Kawasaki disease (KD). The purpose of this study was to identify the laboratory tests needed to easily differentiate KD with HLH from incomplete KD alone.

4

Fluoroquinolones are an important class of antibiotics that are widely used in adult patients because of their broad spectrum of activity, good tissue penetration, and oral bioavailability. However, fluoroquinolone use in children is limited because juvenile animals developed arthropathy in previous experiments on fluoroquinolone use. Indications for fluoroquinolone use in patients younger than 18 years, as stated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, include treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and postexposure treatment for inhalation anthrax. In Korea, the systemic use of fluoroquinolones has not been approved in children younger than 18 years. Although concerns remain regarding the adverse musculoskeletal effects of fluoroquinolones in children, their use in the pediatric population has increased in many circumstances. While pediatricians should be aware of the indications and adverse effects of fluoroquinolones, recent studies have shown that the risk for musculoskeletal complications in children did not significantly increase following fluoroquinolone treatment. In addition, fluoroquinolones may be particularly helpful in treating multidrug-resistant infections that have not responded to standard antibiotic therapy in immunocompromised patients. In the present article, we provide an updated review on the safety and current recommendations for using fluoroquinolones in children.

Concepts: HIV, Immune system, Medicine, Urinary tract infection, Antibiotic resistance, Antibiotic, Ciprofloxacin, Quinolone

2

This meta-analysis pooled all of case-control and cohort studies to obtain the association between preeclampsia and the risk of ASD children.

1

Plastibell is one of the three most common devices used for neonatal circumcision in the United States, with a complication rate as low as 1.8%. The Plastibell circumcision device is commonly used under local anesthesia for religious circumcision in male neonates, because of cosmetic reasons and ease of use. Occasionally, instead of falling off, the device may get buried under the skin along the shaft of the penis, thereby obstructing the normal flow of urine. Furthermore, the foreskin of neonates is highly vascularized, and hence, hemorrhage and infection are possible when the skin is cut. Necrosis of penile skin, followed by urethral obstruction and renal failure, is a serious surgical mishap requiring immediate corrective surgery and medical attention. We report a case of fulminant urosepsis, acute renal failure, and pyelonephritis in a 4-day-old male neonate secondary to impaction of a Plastibell circumcision device. Immediate medical management was initiated with fluid resuscitation and mechanical ventilation; thereby correcting life threatening complications. Pediatricians and Emergency Department physicians should be cognizant of the complications from Plastibell circumcision device in order to institute appropriate and timely management in neonates.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Physician, Anesthesia, Foreskin, Penis, Circumcision, Glans penis

0

Many critically ill patients need to be transferred to a higher-level hospital for more complex medical care. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation regarding pediatric transportation services has been published and many pediatric transport programs have been established, adverse events during pediatric transport still occur.

0

Inherited platelet disorders (IPDs), which manifest as primary hemostasis defects, often underlie abnormal bleeding and a family history of thrombocytopenia, bone marrow failure, hematologic malignancies, undefined mucocutaneous bleeding disorder, or congenital bony defects. A wide heterogeneity in IPD types, in regard to the presence or absence of thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction, bone marrow failure, and dysmegakaryopoiesis, is observed in patients. The individual processes involved in platelet production and hemostasis are genetically controlled: to date, mutations more than 50 genes involved in various steps of platelet biogenesis have been implicated in IPDs. Representative IPDs resulting from defects in specific pathways, such as THPO/MPL signaling; transcriptional regulation; granule formation, trafficking, and secretion; proplatelet formation; cytoskeleton regulation; and transmembrane GP signaling, are reviewed, and the underlying gene mutations discussed based on the NCBI database and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man accession number (OMIM). Further, the status and prevalence of genetically confirmed IPDs in Korea are explored based on the literature searches of PubMed and KoreaMed database. IPDs are congenital bleeding disorders that can be dangerous due to unexpected bleeding and also requires genetic counseling for family members and descendants. Therefore, the pediatrician should be suspicious and aware of IPDs and able to carry out appropriate tests if the patient has an unexpected bleeding. However, each disease of IPDs are extremely rare, thus the domestic incidence of IPDs are unclear and it is difficult to diagnose IPDs. Diagnostic confirmation or differential diagnoses of IPDs are challenging, time-consuming, and expensive, and patients are frequently misdiagnosed. Comprehensive molecular characterization and classification for these disorders should enable accurate and precise diagnosis and facilitate improved patient management.