Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Korean journal of anesthesiology


Virtual reality (VR) distraction is a nonpharmacological method to prevent acute pain that has not yet been thoroughly explored for anesthesiology. We present our experience using VR distraction to decrease routine intravenous sedation for patients undergoing preoperative perineural catheter insertion.

Concepts: Anesthesia, Opioid, Anatomy, Virtual reality, Sedation


Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a common complication after inadvertent dural puncture. Risks factors include female sex, young age, pregnancy, vaginal delivery, low body mass index, and being a non-smoker. Needle size, design, and the technique used also affect the risk. Because PDPH can be incapacitating, prompt diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. A diagnostic hallmark of PDPH is a postural headache that worsens with sitting or standing, and improves with lying down. Conservative therapies such as bed rest, hydration, and caffeine are commonly used as prophylaxis and treatment for this condition; however, no substantial evidence supports routine bed rest and aggressive hydration. An epidural blood patch is the most effective treatment option for patients with unsuccessful conservative management. Various other prophylactic and treatment interventions have been suggested. However, due to a lack of conclusive evidence supporting their use, the potential benefits of such interventions should be weighed carefully against the risks. This article reviews the current literature on the diagnosis, risk factors, pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of PDPH.

Concepts: Childbirth, Diagnosis, Risk, Mass, Body mass index, Sex, Lumbar puncture, Post dural puncture headache


Multimodal analgesia is defined as the use of more than one pharmacological class of analgesic medication targeting different receptors along the pain pathway with the goal of improving analgesia while reducing individual class-related side effects. Evidence today supports the routine use of multimodal analgesia in the perioperative period to eliminate the over-reliance on opioids for pain control and to reduce opioid-related adverse events. A multimodal analgesic protocol should be surgery-specific, functioning more like a checklist than a recipe, with options to tailor to the individual patient. Elements of this protocol may include opioids, non-opioid systemic analgesics like acetaminophen, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, gabapentinoids, ketamine, and local anesthetics administered by infiltration, regional block, or the intravenous route. While implementation of multimodal analgesic protocols perioperatively is recommended as an intervention to decrease the prevalence of long-term opioid use following surgery, the concurrent crisis of drug shortages presents an additional challenge. Anesthesiologists and acute pain medicine specialists will need to advocate locally and nationally to ensure a steady supply of analgesic medications and in-class alternatives for their patients' perioperative pain management.


The IPACK (Infiltration between the Popliteal Artery and Capsule of the Knee) block is a new anesthesiologist-administered analgesic technique for controlling posterior knee pain in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients that has not yet been well studied. We compared pain outcomes in TKA patients before and after implementation of IPACK with the hypothesis that patients receiving IPACK blocks will report lower pain scores on postoperative day (POD) 0 compared to non-IPACK patients.


A pilot study asks whether something can be done, should the researchers proceed with it, and if so, how. However, a pilot study also has a specific design feature; it is conducted on a smaller scale than the main or full-scale study. In other words, the pilot study is important for improvement of the quality and efficiency of the main study. In addition, it is conducted in order to assess the safety of treatment or interventions and recruitment potentials, examine the randomization and blinding process, increase the researchers' experience with the study methods or medicine and interventions, and provide estimates for sample size calculation. This review discusses with a focus on the misconceptions and the ethical aspect of a pilot study. Additionally how to interpret the results of a pilot study is also introduced in this review.

Concepts: Estimator, Sampling


Long-term sustainability of clinical practice changes in anesthesia has not been previously reported. Therefore, we performed a 5-year audit following implementation of a clinical pathway change to favor spinal anesthesia for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We similarly evaluated a parallel cohort of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) which did not undergo clinical pathway change as well as the utilization of regional analgesia.


Missing values and outliers are frequently encountered while collecting data. The presence of missing values reduces the data available to be analyzed, compromising the statistical power of the study, and eventually the reliability of its results. In addition, it causes a significant bias in the results and degrades the efficiency of the data. Outliers significantly affect the process of estimating statistics (e.g., the average and standard deviation of a sample), resulting in overestimated or underestimated values. Therefore, the results of data analysis are considerably dependent on the ways in which the missing values and outliers are processed. In this regard, this review discusses the types of missing values, ways of identifying outliers, and dealing with the two.

Concepts: Scientific method, Statistics, Mathematics, Data, Data analysis, Mean, Standard deviation, Statistical terminology


Anesthesiologists who have finished formal training and want to learn ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia (UGRA) commonly attend 1 day workshops. However, it is unclear whether participation actually changes clinical practice. We assessed change implementation after completion of a 1 day simulation-based UGRA workshop.


Both neuraxial and peripheral regional analgesic techniques offer postoperative analgesia for total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients. While no single technique is preferred, quadriceps muscle weakness from peripheral nerve blocks may impede rehabilitation. We designed this study to compare postoperative ambulation outcome in THA patients who were treated with a new ultrasound-guided fascia iliaca catheter (FIC) technique or intrathecal morphine (ITM).

Concepts: Hip replacement, Pelvis


Since the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in Wuhan in December 2019, the virus has spread globally. The World Health Organization declared the virus outbreak a pandemic on March 11, 2020. On January 19, 2020, a 35-year-old woman who returned from China was confirmed as the first SARS-CoV-2 infected case in Korea. Since then, it has spread all over Korea.