SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of vascular surgery

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It has been demonstrated that publicly available social media content may affect patient choice of physician, hospital, and medical facility. Furthermore, such content has the potential to affect professional reputation among peers and employers. Our goal was to evaluate the extent of unprofessional social media content among recent vascular surgery fellows and residents.

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To compare the results of stent graft placement to balloon angioplasty for the treatment of stenosis at the venous anastomosis of failing and thrombosed prosthetic hemodialysis grafts.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Implants

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Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is almost invariably associated with a generalized atherosclerotic involvement of the arterial tree and endothelial dysfunction. Previous short-term studies showed improvement of vascular reactivity and walking capacity in PAD patients by measures aimed at restoring nitric oxide (NO) production. NO is also known to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. We wished to assess whether the prolonged administration of an NO-donating agent (NCX 4016) improves the functional capacity of PAD patients and affects the progression of atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT).

Concepts: Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Blood vessel, Endothelium, Intima-media thickness, Intermittent claudication, Angiology

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PURPOSE: Neutrophils have been shown to be involved in all stages of human and experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. The initial processes of neutrophil rolling and trapping in the intraluminal thrombus (ILT) are mediated mainly by P-selectin expressed by activated platelets. In the present study, we propose to evaluate the beneficial effect of fucoidan, a competitive binding agent of P-selectin, on aneurysmal growth in a rat model of aortic aneurysm with neutrophil enrichment of the ILT induced by repeated episodes of weak bacteremia. METHODS: Sixty Lewis rats with experimental AAAs, developed from decellularized aortic xenografts, were divided into four groups. Two groups were used as controls: group fucoidan control (FC) was treated with 200 mg of fucoidan (F) delivered by 2 mL, 4-week osmotic pumps placed intraperitoneally before closing the abdomen, and group C received saline instead of fucoidan. Two more groups were injected weekly with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis [Pg]): group F+Pg received 200 mg of intraperitoneal fucoidan and group Pg received saline. AAAs were harvested after 4 weeks and peripheral blood was sampled at that time. Cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) and myeloperoxydase (MPO) antigen concentrations were determined in plasma and in AAA-conditioned media. Histology and P-selectin immunostaining were performed on AAA tissue samples. RESULTS: Comparing rats injected with Pg, those receiving fucoidan presented reduced aneurysmal diameter. Histologic analysis of AAAs showed that fucoidan reduced the ILT thickness in Pg-injected rats, with fewer trapped neutrophils, and with signs of a healing process, as observed in control group C. Immunohistological analysis revealed a substantial decrease in P-selectin immunostaining at the luminal surface of aneurysms in fucoidan-treated rats compared to the other groups, suggesting an interaction between fucoidan and P-selectin. A significant decrease in MPO concentrations in both plasma and conditioned medium was induced by fucoidan treatment in Pg-injected rats, reflecting a pacification of the ILT biological activity. This effect was associated with a reduction in neutrophil activation and apoptosis, reflected by a significant decrease in cf-DNA concentration in both plasma and conditioned medium of fucoidan-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that fucoidan has a beneficial effect on experimental aneurysmal degeneration by decreasing neutrophil activation in the ILT enhanced by weak pathogen contamination. This effect seems to be related to its interaction with P-selectin, which may decrease the trapping of neutrophils into the ILT. Fucoidan could represent a therapeutic option in AAAs to decrease the neutrophil activation involved in the degenerative process of aneurysmal expansion and rupture.

Concepts: Blood, Histology, Aortic aneurysm, Aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, Porphyromonas gingivalis

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OBJECTIVE: Endografts represent a relatively new treatment modality for occlusive disease of the superficial femoral artery, with promising results. However, endografts may occlude collateral arteries, which may affect outcome in case of failure. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical outcome of failed endografts in patients with superficial femoral artery occlusive disease. METHODS: All patients treated with one or more polytetrafluorethylene-covered stents between November 2001 and December 2011 were prospectively included in a database. Patients with a failure of the endograft were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and hemodynamic parameters were assessed before the initial procedure and at the time of failure. Outcome of secondary procedures was analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 341 patients who were treated during the study period, 49 (14.4%) failed during follow-up. Mean (standard deviation) Rutherford category at failure did not differ from the category as scored before the initial procedure (3.1 [1.3] vs 3.3 [0.6]; P = .33). Forty-three percent of patients (n = 21) presented with the same Rutherford category as before the initial procedure, 37% (n = 18) with an improved category, and 20% (n = 10) with a deteriorated category. The ankle-brachial index was significantly lower at the time of failure (0.66 [0.19] vs 0.45 [0.19[; P <.002). Seventy-six percent of patients with a failure needed secondary surgery, of which 25% were below knee. The 1-year primary, primary-assisted, and secondary patency rates of secondary bypasses were 55.1%, 62.3%, and 77.7%, respectively. The amputation rate was 4.1% (n = 2). CONCLUSIONS: Failure of endografts is not associated with a deterioration in clinical state and is related to a low amputation rate. The hypothesis that covered stents do not affect options for secondary reconstructions could not be confirmed, as 25% of patients with a failure underwent a below-knee bypass. Secondary surgical bypasses are correlated with poor patency. The amputation rate after failure is low.

Concepts: Coronary artery bypass surgery, Femoral artery, Femoral vein, External iliac artery, Superficial iliac circumflex artery, Popliteal artery, Femoral triangle

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Spinal cord ischemia is a potentially devastating complication after thoracic endovascular aorta repair (TEVAR). Patients with spinal cord ischemia after TEVAR often develop paraplegia, which is considered irreversible, and have significant increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a patient with unusual late complete neurologic recovery of acute-onset paraplegia after TEVAR for an infected thoracic aortic aneurysm.

Concepts: Central nervous system, Hospital, Aortic aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Aorta, Spinal cord injury, Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, Lumbar puncture

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The management options of an isolated celiac artery dissection include medical, open surgical, and endovascular techniques. Which strategy is chosen depends on the severity of the dissection, collateral circulation to the liver, the patient’s hemodynamic status, and the surgeon’s expertise. We describe an unusual case of celiac artery dissection involving splenic and hepatic arteries complicated by hemorrhage. The patient was successfully treated by coil embolization of the splenic and gastric branches. Hepatic arterial blood flow was preserved with a stent graft extending from the origin of the gastroduodenal artery to the orifice of the celiac artery.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Blood, Heart, Blood vessel, Artery, Common hepatic artery, Celiac artery, Gastroduodenal artery

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OBJECTIVE: The Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) require high-risk (HR) criteria for carotid artery stenting (CAS) reimbursement. The impact of these criteria on outcomes after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and CAS remains uncertain. Additionally, if these HR criteria are associated with more adverse events after CAS, then existing comparative effectiveness analysis of CEA vs CAS may be biased. We sought to elucidate this using data from the SVS Vascular Registry. METHODS: We analyzed 10,107 patients undergoing CEA (6370) and CAS (3737), stratified by CMS HR criteria. The primary endpoint was composite death, stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI) (major adverse cardiovascular event [MACE]) at 30 days. We compared baseline characteristics and outcomes using univariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: CAS patients were more likely to have preoperative stroke (26% vs 21%) or transient ischemic attack (23% vs 19%) than CEA. Although age ≥80 years was similar, CAS patients were more likely to have all other HR criteria. For CEA, HR patients had higher MACEs than normal risk in both symptomatic (7.3% vs 4.6%; P < .01) and asymptomatic patients (5% vs 2.2%; P < .0001). For CAS, HR status was not associated with a significant increase in MACE for symptomatic (9.1% vs 6.2%; P = .24) or asymptomatic patients (5.4% vs 4.2%; P = .61). All CAS patients had MACE rates similar to HR CEA. After multivariable risk adjustment, CAS had higher rates than CEA for MACE (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.5), death (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.2), and stroke (OR, 1.3; 95% CI,1.0-1.7), whereas there was no difference in MI (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-1.3). Among CEA patients, age ≥80 (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.02-1.8), congestive heart failure (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.03-2.8), EF <30% (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.6-7.7), angina (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.6-9.9), contralateral occlusion (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.1-4.7), and high anatomic lesion (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.33-5.6) predicted MACE. Among CAS patients, recent MI (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.5-7.0) was predictive, and radiation (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8) and restenosis (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.96) were protective for MACE. CONCLUSIONS: Although CMS HR criteria can successfully discriminate a group of patients at HR for adverse events after CEA, certain CMS HR criteria are more important than others. However, CEA appears safer for the majority of patients with carotid disease. Among patients undergoing CAS, non-HR status may be limited to restenosis and radiation.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, Heart failure, Stroke, Transient ischemic attack, Common carotid artery, Carotid endarterectomy

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Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common postoperative complications after vascular reconstruction, producing significant morbidity and hospital readmission. In contrast to SSI that develops while patients are still hospitalized, little is known about the cohort of patients who develop SSI after discharge. In this study, we explore the factors that lead to postdischarge SSI, investigate the differences between risk factors for in-hospital vs postdischarge SSI, and develop a scoring system to identify patients who might benefit from postdischarge monitoring of their wounds.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Al-Andalus, Antiseptic

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for biomimetic self-assembling fluorosurfactant polymer (FSP) coatings incorporating heptamaltose (M7-FSP) to block nonspecific protein adsorption, the cell adhesive RGD peptide (RGD-FSP), or the endothelial cell-selective CRRETAWAC peptide (cRRE-FSP) to improve patency and endothelialization in small-diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular graft implants.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Amino acid, Common carotid artery, Perfluorooctanoic acid, Fluorocarbon, Gore-Tex