SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of translational medicine

291

Elevated levels of blood cholesterol are associated with cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current therapies for addressing elevated blood cholesterol can be inadequate, ineffective or associated with side effects; therefore, the search for additional therapies is ongoing. This study evaluated Daily Body Restore (DBR), a proprietary blend of 9 probiotic organisms of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and 10 digestive enzymes, for its effects on cholesterol metabolism using an in vitro system and a mouse model.

Concepts: Cell, Bacteria, Metabolism, Nutrition, Atherosclerosis, Low-density lipoprotein, Steroid, Hypercholesterolemia

202

BACKGROUND: The benefits of exercise are well established but one major barrier for many is time. It has been proposed that short period resistance training (RT) could play a role in weight control by increasing resting energy expenditure (REE) but the effects of different kinds of RT has not been widely reported. METHODS: We tested the acute effects of high-intensity interval resistance training (HIRT) vs. traditional resistance training (TT) on REE and respiratory ratio (RR) at 22 hours post-exercise. In two separate sessions, seventeen trained males carried out HIRT and TT protocols. The HIRT technique consists of: 6 repetitions, 20 seconds rest, 2/3 repetitions, 20 secs rest, 2/3 repetitions with 2[prime]30[prime][prime] rest between sets, three exercises for a total of 7 sets. TT consisted of eight exercises of 4 sets of 8–12 repetitions with one/two minutes rest with a total amount of 32 sets. We measured basal REE and RR (TT0 and HIRT0) and 22 hours after the training session (TT22 and HIRT22). RESULTS: HIRT showed a greater significant increase (p < 0.001) in REE at 22 hours compared to TT (HIRT22 2362 +/- 118 Kcal/d vs TT22 1999 +/- 88 Kcal/d). RR at HIRT22 was significantly lower (0.798 +/- 0.010) compared to both HIRT0 (0.827 +/- 0.006) and TT22 (0.822 +/- 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that shorter HIRT sessions may increase REE after exercise to a greater extent than TT and may reduce RR hence improving fat oxidation. The shorter exercise time commitment may help to reduce one major barrier to exercise.

Concepts: Physical exercise, Exercise, Training, Strength training, Weight training, Trigraph, Gh, Order theory

170

BACKGROUND: The use of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis (MS) may favour JC virus reactivation; this phenomenon is usually asymptomatic but can, albeit rarely, evolve into frank progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS: JCV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry over a 24-month period in 24 natalizumab-treated MS patients in whom JCV DNA was or was not detected in blood using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; all these cases were asymptomatic. RESULTS: Perforin- and grazymes-containing VP-1-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes were reduced whereas CD107a-expressing cells were increased in JCV positive patients, suggesting an active degranulation of these cells; naive CD8+ T lymphocytes were also decreased whereas memory cells were increased in patients in whom JCV reactivation was observed. CONCLUSION: The presence of a CD8+ T lymphocyte-mediated effector immune response offers a greater insight into reactivation of JCV and its clinical sequelae, and may help the monitoring of patients on natalizumab therapy.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, DNA, Polymerase chain reaction, Natural killer cell, Multiple sclerosis, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, JC virus

170

BACKGROUND: Inducing donor-specific tolerance in renal transplant patients could potentially prevent allograft rejection and calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity. Combined kidney and hematopoietic stem cell transplant from an HLA-matched donor is an exploratory and promising therapy to induce immune tolerance. Investigtion of molecular mechanisms involved in the disease is needed to understand the potential process of cell therapy and develop strategies to prevent this immunologic rejection. METHODS: We enrolled nine patients in a clinical study in which cryopreserved donor hematopoietic stem cells were infused on days 2, 4, and 6 after kidney transplantation. One month post-transplant, 4 plasma samples were collected from combined transplants (C + Tx), and 8 plasma samples from patients with kidney transplantation alone (Tx). High abundance proteins in plasma were depleted and the two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with iTRAQ labeling was utilized to identify the protein profiling between the two groups. Clusters of up- and down-regulated protein profiles were submitted to MetaCore for the construction of transcriptional factors and regulation networks. Results and Discussion Among the 179 identified proteins, 65 proteins were found in C + Tx with at least a 2-fold change as compared with Tx. A subset of proteins related to the complement and coagulation cascade, including complement C3a,complement C5a, precrusors to fibrinogen alpha and beta chains,was significantly downregulated in C + Tx. Meanwhile, Apolipoprotein-A1(ApoA1), ApoC1, ApoA2, ApoE, and ApoB were significantly lower in Tx compared to C + Tx. Gene ontology analysis showed that the dominant processes of differentially expressed proteins were associated with the inflammatory response and positive regulation of plasma lipoprotein particle remodeling. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, our study provides new insight into the molecular events in the hematopoietic stem cell-induced immunologic tolerance.

Concepts: Immune system, DNA, Gene expression, Stem cell, Immunology, Organ transplant, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Hematopoietic stem cell

118

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a very aggressive type of cancer, with a dismal prognosis and inherent resistance to chemotherapeutics. Development and evaluation of new therapeutic approaches is highly needed. Immunosuppressant FTY720, approved for multiple sclerosis treatment, has recently raised attention for its anti-tumor activity in a variety of cancers. However, its therapeutic potential in MM has not been evaluated yet.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lung cancer, Chemotherapy, Multiple sclerosis, Mesothelioma, Asbestos

74

Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) can easily be obtained from a mini-lipoaspirate procedure of fat tissue. The SVF contains a mixture of cells including ADSCs and growth factors and has been depleted of the adipocyte (fat cell) population. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of administering SVF intra-myocardially into patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy.

Concepts: Protein, Embryo, Secretion, Cytoplasm, Fat, Adipose tissue, Adipocyte, Resistin

52

Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males.

Concepts: Protein, Health, Human, Nutrition, Obesity, Physical exercise, Weight loss, Dieting

48

Recent studies have suggested that the intestinal microbiome plays an important role in modulating risk of several chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. At the same time, it is now understood that diet plays a significant role in shaping the microbiome, with experiments showing that dietary alterations can induce large, temporary microbial shifts within 24 h. Given this association, there may be significant therapeutic utility in altering microbial composition through diet. This review systematically evaluates current data regarding the effects of several common dietary components on intestinal microbiota. We show that consumption of particular types of food produces predictable shifts in existing host bacterial genera. Furthermore, the identity of these bacteria affects host immune and metabolic parameters, with broad implications for human health. Familiarity with these associations will be of tremendous use to the practitioner as well as the patient.

Concepts: Immune system, Medicine, Disease, Human, Bacteria, Gut flora, Nutrition, Obesity

43

Prompt antibiotic treatment of early stage Lyme borreliosis (LB) prevents progression to severe multisystem disease. There is a clinical need to improve the diagnostic specificity of early stage Lyme assays in the period prior to the mounting of a robust serology response. Using a novel analyte harvesting nanotechnology, Nanotrap particles, we evaluated urinary Borrelia Outer surface protein A (OspA) C-terminus peptide in early stage LB before and after treatment, and in patients suspected of late stage disseminated LB.

Concepts: Protein, Bacteria, Lyme disease, C-terminus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia, Borrelia afzelii, MELISA

41

While the concept of angiogenesis blockade as a therapeutic intervention for cancer has been repeatedly demonstrated, the full promise of this approach has yet to be realized. Specifically, drugs such as VEGF-blocking antibodies or kinase inhibitors suffer from the drawbacks of resistance development, as well as off-target toxicities. Previous studies have demonstrated feasibility of specifically inducing immunity towards tumor endothelium without consequences of systemic autoimmunity in both animal models and clinical settings.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Angiogenesis, Blood vessel, Immunology, Endothelium