Journal: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
The Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a malignant, genetically-determined, arrhythmic syndrome manifesting as syncope or sudden cardiac death (SCD) in individuals with structurally normal hearts. The diagnosis of the BrS is mainly based on the presence of a spontaneous or Na + channel blocker induced characteristic, electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern (type 1 or coved Brugada ECG pattern) typically seen in leads V1 and V2 recorded from the 4th to 2nd intercostal (i.c.) spaces. This pattern needs to be distinguished from similar ECG changes due to other causes (Brugada ECG phenocopies). This review focuses mainly on the ECG-based methods for diagnosis and arrhythmia risk assessment in the BrS. Presently, the main unresolved clinical problem is the identification of those patients at high risk of SCD who need implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), which is the only therapy with proven efficacy. Current guidelines recommend ICD implantation only in patients with spontaneous type 1 ECG pattern, and either history of aborted cardiac arrest or documented sustained VT (class I), or syncope of arrhythmic origin (class IIa) because they are at high risk of recurrent arrhythmic events (up to 10% or more annually for those with aborted cardiac arrest). The majority of BrS patients are asymptomatic when diagnosed and considered to have low risk (around 0.5% annually) and therefore not indicated for ICD. The majority of SCD victims in the BrS, however, had no symptoms prior to the fatal event and therefore were not protected with an ICD. While some ECG markers such as QRS fragmentation, infero-lateral early repolarisation, and abnormal late potentials on signal-averaged ECG are known to be linked to increased arrhythmic risk, they are not sufficiently sensitive or specific. Potential novel ECG-based strategies for risk stratification are discussed based on computerised methods for depolarisation and repolarisation analysis, a composite approach targeting several major components of ventricular arrhythmogenesis, and the collection of large digital ECG databases in genotyped BrS patients and their relatives.
Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and negatively impacts quality of life, healthcare costs, and longevity. Although data on HF in the Arab population are scarce, recently developed regional registries are a step forward to evaluating the quality of current patient care and providing an overview of the clinical picture. Despite the burden of HF in Saudi Arabia, there are currently no standardized protocols or guidelines for the management of patients with acute or chronic heart failure. Therefore, the Heart Failure Expert Committee, comprising 13 local specialists representing both public and private sectors, has developed guidelines to address the needs and challenges for the diagnosis and treatment of HF in Saudi Arabia. The ultimate aim of these guidelines is to assist healthcare professionals in delivering optimal care and standardized clinical practice across Saudi Arabia.
Adult survivors with congenital heart diseases represent a large and growing population, yet the published data does not represent the magnitude of their needs specifically in the Middle East. We aimed to review our experience at King Faisal Heart Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia for the outcome of adult patients with congenital heart disease who underwent either primary or redo surgery.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including dysglycemia, central obesity, high cholesterol, and hypertension. Cardiovascular disease is one of the most common complications of MetS. Recent studies showed that prevalence of MetS among patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome was as high as 46%.
The primary aim was to investigate the efficacy and safety of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) using ticagrelor (T-DAPT) versus clopidogrel (C-DAPT) in a real-world ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) population.
Children who suffer cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) after cardiac surgery frequently survive with return of spontaneous circulation. However, their neurodevelopmental outcomes and performance are still unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the midterm neurodevelopmental outcome and overall performance of children who survived CPA following cardiac surgery.
Recent systematic review and meta-analysis showed that the prevalence of cognitive impairment was significantly increased in patients with heart failure (HF) when compared to the general population. However, the effect of cognitive impairment on cardiovascular outcome in this population is still unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether cognitive impairment associated with worse outcome in patients with HF.
Ivabradine is approved to improve exercise tolerance and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure; its use in acute heart failure (AHF) has not previously been studied.
Perimembranous ventricular septal defect (pmVSD) is a common congenital heart disease (CHD) usually treated with either catheter or surgical closure. Superiority of one procedure over the other in children is still a matter of debate. We performed this meta-analysis to compare the clinical outcomes and cost of transcatheter and surgical closure of pmVSD in children.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of total chronic total occlusion (CTO) still remains a major challenge in interventional cardiology. There is only insignificant knowledge reported in the literature about the influence of body mass index (BMI) on acute outcome, including success rates and complications in CTO-PCI.