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Journal: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care


The objectives of this study were to determine if a video improved HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge among a global sample of Internet users, to discern if this improvement was the same for English and Spanish speakers, and to ascertain if the video was efficacious for those with lower health literacy. A worldwide sample of English- or Spanish-speaking Internet users was solicited. Participants completed a 25-item questionnaire to assess their HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge before and after watching the video. Mean scores on the questionnaire improved after watching the video for both English speakers (after: 19.6 versus before: 16.4; Δ = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-3.5) and Spanish speakers (20.7 versus 17.3; Δ = 3.4; 95% CI: 3.0-3.8). There was no difference in improvement of scores between English and Spanish speakers (Δ = -0.24; 95% CI: -0.79 to 0.31), and this video was equally efficacious for those with lower and higher health literacy skills.

Concepts: HIV/AIDS, Better, Statistics, Improve, Sample size, Spanish language, South Africa, English language


The purpose of establishing integrated counseling and testing center (ICTC) is to detect HIV at the earliest time, providing information on modes of transmission and prevention of HIV by promoting behavioral change and reducing vulnerability, and informing individuals on HIV prevention, care, and treatment services.

Concepts: Tertiary education


Guidelines for antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation have evolved, but consistently note that adherence problems should be considered and addressed. Little is known regarding the reasons providers delay ART initiation in clinically eligible patients.

Concepts: Medicine


Despite the success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs, transition to care in the postpartum period is vulnerable to being lost to care.

Concepts: Postnatal, Ghana


Increasing the proportion of HIV-positive individuals who link promptly to and are retained in care remains challenging in sub-Saharan Africa, but little evidence is available from the provider perspective. In 4 Ethiopian health facilities, we (1) interviewed providers and peer educators about their perceptions of service delivery- and patient-level barriers and (2) observed provider-patient interactions to characterize content and interpersonal aspects of counseling. In interviews, providers and peer educators demonstrated empathy and identified nonacceptance of HIV status, anticipated stigma from unintended disclosure, and fear of antiretroviral therapy as patient barriers, and brusque counseling and insufficient counseling at provider-initiated testing sites as service delivery-related. However, observations from the same clinics showed that providers often failed to elicit patients' barriers to retention, making it unlikely these would be addressed during counseling. Training is needed to improve interpersonal aspects of counseling and ensure providers elicit and address barriers to HIV care experienced by patients.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Protease inhibitor, Viral load, Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Ethiopia


In 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended HIV testing for all adolescents and adults aged 13 to 64 in health care settings with a HIV prevalence of at least 0.1%. However, 55% of US adults have never been tested and therefore do not know their HIV status. To understand suboptimal HIV testing rates, this study sought to illuminate interpersonal and intrapersonal physician barriers to HIV testing. One hundred and eighty physicians from health centers in Houston completed a survey based on Cabana’s Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors model. One-third of the physicians faced at least 1 interpersonal barrier to HIV testing, such as a difference in age or language. Many (41%) physicians faced at least 1 intrapersonal barrier, such as believing their patients would be feeling uncomfortable discussing HIV. Notably, 71% of physicians would prefer their patients ask for the test. A patient-engaging campaign may be an innovative solution to increasing HIV testing and reducing the number of undiagnosed persons.

Concepts: Health care, Viral load, Health care provider, Psychology, Medicine, Western blot, Physician, Illness


The Caribbean and Central America represent a formidable challenge for researchers and policy makers in the HIV field, due to their pronounced heterogeneity in terms of social, economic, and cultural contexts and the different courses the HIV epidemic has followed in the region. Such contrasting contexts and epidemics can be exemplified by 2 countries that share the island of Hispaniola, the French Creole-speaking Haiti, and the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic. Haiti has experienced the worst epidemics outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Following a protracted economic and social crisis, recently aggravated by a devastating earthquake, the local HIV epidemic could experience resurgence. The region, strategically located on the way between coca-producing countries and the profitable North American markets, has been a transshipment area for years. Notwithstanding, the impact of such routes on local drug scenes has been very heterogeneous and dynamic, depending on a combination of local mores, drug enforcement activities, and the broad social and political context. Injecting drug use remains rare in the region, but local drug scenes are dynamic under the influence of increasing mobility of people and goods to and from North and South America, growing tourism and commerce, and prostitution. The multiple impacts of the recent economic and social crisis, as well as the influence of drug-trafficking routes across the Caribbean and other Latin American countries require a sustained effort to track changes in the HIV risk environment to inform sound drug policies and initiatives to minimize drug-related harms in the region.


The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of unplanned care interruption (UCI) among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 2009 to 2011 in a Nigerian clinic. The authors used repeated measures regression to model the impact of UCI on CD4 count upon return to care and rate of CD4 change on ART. Among 2496 patients, 83% had 0, 15% had 1, and 2% had ≥2 UCIs. Mean baseline CD4 for those with 0, 1, or ≥2 UCIs was 228/cells/mm(3), 355/cells/mm(3), and 392/cells/mm(3) ( P < .0001), respectively. The UCI was associated with a 62 CD4 cells/mm(3) decrease (95% confidence interval [CI]: -78 to -45) at next measurement. In months 1 to 6 on ART, patients with 0 UCI gained 10 cells/µL/mo (95% CI: 7-4). Those with 1 and ≥2 UCIs lost 2 and 5 cells/µL/mo (95% CI: -18 to 13 and -26 to 16). Patients with UCI did not recover from early CD4 losses associated with UCI. Preventing UCI is critical to maximize benefits of ART.

Concepts: Cohort study, Longitudinal study


We examined the relationship between depression (symptom type, diagnostic severity, and change over time) and adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) with data from 3 longitudinal studies (N = 1021) of patients starting ART in Uganda. The Patient Health Questionnaire was used to assess depressive symptoms (total score; somatic and cognitive subscales) and categorize severity level. At baseline, 9% had major depression and 30% had minor depression; 82% were adherent (reported no missed ART doses in the past 7 days) at month 6 and 85% at month 12. Controlling for demographic and medical covariates, multivariate random-effects logistic regression models revealed that change in depression was not related to adherence; however, baseline total depression symptoms and cognitive symptoms in particular as well as major and minor depression were significant predictors of adherence. These findings highlight the need for early identification and aggressive treatment of depression to optimize ART adherence.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Regression analysis, Logistic regression, Major depressive disorder, Minor depressive disorder, Treatment for depression


To identify factors to consider for developing and implementing a community-based exercise (CBE) program for people living with HIV (PLWH).

Concepts: Process