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Journal: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN


Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is a common cause of hypercalcemia after kidney transplant. We designed this 12-month, prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized study to evaluate whether subtotal parathyroidectomy is more effective than cinacalcet for controlling hypercalcemia caused by persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplant. Kidney allograft recipients with hypercalcemia and elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) concentration were eligible if they had received a transplant ≥6 months before the study and had an eGFR>30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). The primary end point was the proportion of patients with normocalcemia at 12 months. Secondary end points were serum iPTH concentration, serum phosphate concentration, bone mineral density, vascular calcification, renal function, patient and graft survival, and economic cost. In total, 30 patients were randomized to receive cinacalcet (n=15) or subtotal parathyroidectomy (n=15). At 12 months, ten of 15 patients in the cinacalcet group and 15 of 15 patients in the parathyroidectomy group (P=0.04) achieved normocalcemia. Normalization of serum phosphate concentration occurred in almost all patients. Subtotal parathyroidectomy induced greater reduction of iPTH and associated with a significant increase in femoral neck bone mineral density; vascular calcification remained unchanged in both groups. The most frequent adverse events were digestive intolerance in the cinacalcet group and hypocalcemia in the parathyroidectomy group. Surgery would be more cost effective than cinacalcet if cinacalcet duration reached 14 months. All patients were alive with a functioning graft at the end of follow-up. In conclusion, subtotal parathyroidectomy was superior to cinacalcet in controlling hypercalcemia in these patients with kidney transplants and persistent hyperparathyroidism.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Vitamin D, Parathyroid hormone, Organ transplant, Hypoparathyroidism, Hyperparathyroidism


The effect of clinically recovered AKI (r-AKI) on future pregnancy outcomes is unknown. We retrospectively studied all women who delivered infants between 1998 and 2007 at Massachusetts General Hospital to assess whether a previous episode of r-AKI associated with subsequent adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including preeclampsia. AKI was defined as rise in serum creatinine concentration to 1.5-fold above baseline. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women with r-AKI without history of CKD (eGFR>90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) before conception; n=105) with outcomes in women without kidney disease (controls; n=24,640). The r-AKI and control groups had similar prepregnancy serum creatinine measurements (0.70±0.20 versus 0.69±0.10 mg/dl; P=0.36). However, women with r-AKI had increased rates of preeclampsia compared with controls (23% versus 4%; P<0.001). Infants of women with r-AKI were born earlier than infants of controls (37.6±3.6 versus 39.2±2.2 weeks; P<0.001), with increased rates of small for gestational age births (15% versus 8%; P=0.03). After multivariate adjustment, r-AKI associated with increased risk for preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.6 to 9.7) and adverse fetal outcomes (aOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.7). When women with r-AKI and controls were matched 1:2 by age, race, body mass index, diastolic BP, parity, and diabetes status, r-AKI remained associated with preeclampsia (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.1 to 10.1) and adverse fetal outcomes (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.7). Thus, a past episode of AKI, despite return to normal renal function before pregnancy, associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Embryo, Fetus, Renal physiology, Obstetrics, Body mass index, Gestational age


Observational studies have reported that black and Hispanic adults receiving maintenance dialysis survive longer than non-Hispanic white counterparts. Whether there are racial disparities in survival of children with ESRD is not clear. We compared mortality risk among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white children who started RRT between 1995 and 2011 and were followed through 2012. We examined all-cause mortality using adjusted Cox models. Of 12,123 children included for analysis, 1600 died during the median follow-up of 7.1 years. Approximately 25% of children were non-Hispanic black, and 26% of children were of Hispanic ethnicity. Non-Hispanic black children had a 36% higher risk of death (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.21 to 1.52) and Hispanic children had a 34% lower risk of death (95% CI, 0.57 to 0.77) than non-Hispanic white children. Adjustment for transplant as a time-dependent covariate abolished the higher risk of death in non-Hispanic black children (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.12) but did not attenuate the finding of a lower risk of death in Hispanic children (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.68). In conclusion, Hispanic children had lower mortality than non-Hispanic white children. Non-Hispanic black children had higher mortality than non-Hispanic white children, which was related to differences in access to transplantation by race. Parity in access to transplantation in children and improvements in strategies to prolong graft survival could substantially reduce disparities in mortality risk of non-Hispanic black children treated with RRT.

Concepts: Race, Ethnic group, White American, White people, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Race in the United States, White Hispanic and Latino Americans


The association between proton pump inhibitors (PPI) use and risk of acute interstitial nephritis has been described. However, whether exposure to PPI associates with incident CKD, CKD progression, or ESRD is not known. We used Department of Veterans Affairs national databases to build a primary cohort of new users of PPI (n=173,321) and new users of histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2blockers;n=20,270) and followed these patients over 5 years to ascertain renal outcomes. In adjusted Cox survival models, the PPI group, compared with the H2blockers group, had an increased risk of incident eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)and of incident CKD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.18 to 1.26; and HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.34, respectively). Patients treated with PPI also had a significantly elevated risk of doubling of serum creatinine level (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1.65), of eGFR decline >30% (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.37), and of ESRD (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.21 to 3.18). Furthermore, we detected a graded association between duration of PPI exposure and risk of renal outcomes among those exposed to PPI for 31-90, 91-180, 181-360, and 361-720 days compared with those exposed for ≤30 days. Examination of risk of renal outcomes in 1:1 propensity score-matched cohorts of patients taking H2blockers versus patients taking PPI and patients taking PPI versus controls yielded consistent results. Our results suggest that PPI exposure associates with increased risk of incident CKD, CKD progression, and ESRD.

Concepts: Kidney, Proportional hazards models, Renal physiology, Creatinine, Interstitial nephritis, Kidney diseases, Nephritis, H2 antagonist


Background Although intestinal and urinary microbiome perturbations are associated with nephrolithiasis, whether antibiotics are a risk factor for this condition remains unknown.Methods We determined the association between 12 classes of oral antibiotics and nephrolithiasis in a population-based, case-control study nested within 641 general practices providing electronic health record data for >13 million children and adults from 1994 to 2015 in the United Kingdom. We used incidence density sampling to match 25,981 patients with nephrolithiasis to 259,797 controls by age, sex, and practice at date of diagnosis (index date). Conditional logistic regression models were adjusted for the rate of health care encounters, comorbidities, urinary tract infections, and use of thiazide and loop diuretics, proton-pump inhibitors, and statins.Results Exposure to any of five different antibiotic classes 3-12 months before index date was associated with nephrolithiasis. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.33 (2.19 to 2.48) for sulfas, 1.88 (1.75 to 2.01) for cephalosporins, 1.67 (1.54 to 1.81) for fluoroquinolones, 1.70 (1.55 to 1.88) for nitrofurantoin/methenamine, and 1.27 (1.18 to 1.36) for broad-spectrum penicillins. In exploratory analyses, the magnitude of associations was greatest for exposure at younger ages (P<0.001) and 3-6 months before index date (P<0.001), with all but broad-spectrum penicillins remaining statistically significant 3-5 years from exposure.Conclusions Oral antibiotics associated with increased odds of nephrolithiasis, with the greatest odds for recent exposure and exposure at younger age. These results have implications for disease pathogenesis and the rising incidence of nephrolithiasis, particularly among children.


The appropriate target for BP in patients with CKD and hypertension remains uncertain. We report prespecified subgroup analyses of outcomes in participants with baseline CKD in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial. We randomly assigned participants to a systolic BP target of <120 mm Hg (intensive group; n=1330) or <140 mm Hg (standard group; n=1316). After a median follow-up of 3.3 years, the primary composite cardiovascular outcome occurred in 112 intensive group and 131 standard group CKD participants (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.63 to 1.05). The intensive group also had a lower rate of all-cause death (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.99). Treatment effects did not differ between participants with and without CKD (P values for interactions ≥0.30). The prespecified main kidney outcome, defined as the composite of ≥50% decrease in eGFR from baseline or ESRD, occurred in 15 intensive group and 16 standard group participants (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.83). After the initial 6 months, the intensive group had a slightly higher rate of change in eGFR (-0.47 versus -0.32 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year; P<0.03). The overall rate of serious adverse events did not differ between treatment groups, although some specific adverse events occurred more often in the intensive group. Thus, among patients with CKD and hypertension without diabetes, targeting an SBP<120 mm Hg compared with <140 mm Hg reduced rates of major cardiovascular events and all-cause death without evidence of effect modifications by CKD or deleterious effect on the main kidney outcome.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Blood, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, Blood pressure, Renin


Retrospective studies suggest that online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) may reduce the risk of mortality compared with standard hemodialysis in patients with ESRD. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial in which we assigned 906 chronic hemodialysis patients either to continue hemodialysis (n=450) or to switch to high-efficiency postdilution OL-HDF (n=456). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes included cardiovascular mortality, all-cause hospitalization, treatment tolerability, and laboratory data. Compared with patients who continued on hemodialysis, those assigned to OL-HDF had a 30% lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.53-0.92; P=0.01), a 33% lower risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.44-1.02; P=0.06), and a 55% lower risk of infection-related mortality (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.96; P=0.03). The estimated number needed to treat suggested that switching eight patients from hemodialysis to OL-HDF may prevent one annual death. The incidence rates of dialysis sessions complicated by hypotension and of all-cause hospitalization were lower in patients assigned to OL-HDF. In conclusion, high-efficiency postdilution OL-HDF reduces all-cause mortality compared with conventional hemodialysis.

Concepts: Dialysis, Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Randomized controlled trial, Hemodialysis, Renal replacement therapy, Outcome, Suggestion


Frequent hemodialysis requires using the vascular access more often than with conventional hemodialysis, but whether this increases the risk for access-related complications is unknown. In two separate trials, we randomly assigned 245 patients to receive in-center daily hemodialysis (6 days per week) or conventional hemodialysis (3 days per week) and 87 patients to receive home nocturnal hemodialysis (6 nights per week) or conventional hemodialysis, for 12 months. The primary vascular access outcome was time to first access event (repair, loss, or access-related hospitalization). Secondary outcomes were time to all repairs and time to all losses. In the Daily Trial, 77 (31%) of 245 patients had a primary outcome event: 33 repairs and 15 losses in the daily group and 17 repairs, 11 losses, and 1 hospitalization in the conventional group. Overall, the risk for a first access event was 76% higher with daily hemodialysis than with conventional hemodialysis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-2.79; P=0.017); among the 198 patients with an arteriovenous (AV) access at randomization, the risk was 90% higher with daily hemodialysis (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.11-3.25; P=0.02). Daily hemodialysis patients had significantly more total AV access repairs than conventional hemodialysis patients (P=0.011), with 55% of all repairs involving thrombectomy or surgical revision. Losses of AV access did not differ between groups (P=0.58). We observed similar trends in the Nocturnal Trial, although the results were not statistically significant. In conclusion, frequent hemodialysis increases the risk of vascular access complications. The nature of the AV access repairs suggests that this risk likely results from increased hemodialysis frequency rather than heightened surveillance.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Statistics, Hemodialysis, Confidence interval, Statistical hypothesis testing, Renal dialysis, Home hemodialysis, Northwest Kidney Centers


Vasopressin modulates sodium reabsorption in the collecting duct through adenylyl cyclase-stimulated cyclic AMP, which exists as multiple isoforms; the specific isoform involved in vasopressin-stimulated sodium transport is unknown. To assess this, we studied mice deficient in adenylyl cyclase type VI specifically in the principal cells of the collecting duct. Knockout mice had increased urine volume and reduced urine sodium concentration, but regardless of the level of sodium intake, they did not exhibit significant alterations in urinary sodium excretion, arterial pressure, or pulse rate. Plasma renin concentration was elevated in knockout mice, however, suggesting a compensatory response. Valsartan significantly reduced arterial pressure in knockout mice but not in controls. Knockout mice had decreased renal cortical mRNA content of all three epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) isoforms, and total cell sodium channel isoforms α and γ were reduced in these animals. Patch-clamp analysis of split-open cortical collecting ducts revealed no difference in baseline activity of sodium channels, but knockout mice had abolished vasopressin-stimulated ENaC open probability and apical membrane channel number. In summary, these data suggest that adenylyl cyclase VI mediates vasopressin-stimulated ENaC activity in the kidney.

Concepts: Kidney, Nephron, Blood pressure, Renal physiology, Aldosterone, Sodium, Renin, Collecting duct system


Nephrons comprise a blood filter and an epithelial tubule that is subdivided into proximal and distal segments, but what directs this patterning during kidney organogenesis is not well understood. Using zebrafish, we found that the HNF1β paralogues hnf1ba and hnf1bb, which encode homeodomain transcription factors, are essential for normal segmentation of nephrons. Embryos deficient in hnf1ba and hnf1bb did not express proximal and distal segment markers, yet still developed an epithelial tubule. Initiating hnf1ba/b expression required Pax2a and Pax8, but hnf1ba/b-deficient embryos did not exhibit the expected downregulation of pax2a and pax8 at later stages of development, suggesting complex regulatory loops involving these molecules. Embryos deficient in hnf1ba/b also did not express the irx3b transcription factor, which is responsible for differentiation of the first distal tubule segment. Reciprocally, embryos deficient in irx3b exhibited downregulation of hnf1ba/b transcripts in the distal early segment, suggesting a segment-specific regulatory circuit. Deficiency of hnf1ba/b also led to ectopic expansion of podocytes into the proximal tubule domain. Epistasis experiments showed that the formation of podocytes required wt1a, which encodes the Wilms' tumor suppressor-1 transcription factor, and rbpj, which encodes a mediator of canonical Notch signaling, downstream or parallel to hnf1ba/b. Taken together, these results suggest that Hnf1β factors are essential for normal segmentation of nephrons during kidney organogenesis.

Concepts: DNA, Gene expression, Developmental biology, Glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, Nephron, Transcription factor, Distal convoluted tubule