Journal: Journal of the American Heart Association
Background Energy drinks have been linked to an increase in emergency room visits and deaths. We aim to determine the impact of energy drinks on electrocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters in young healthy volunteers. Methods and Results A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted in healthy volunteers. Participants consumed 32 oz of either energy drink A, energy drink B, or placebo within 60 minutes on 3 study days with a 6-day washout period in between. The primary end point of QT c interval and secondary end points of QT interval, PR interval, QRS duration, heart rate, and brachial and central blood pressures were measured at baseline, and every 30 minutes for 240 minutes. A repeated-measures 2-way analysis of variance was performed with the main effects of intervention, time, and an interaction of intervention and time. Thirty-four participants were included (age 22.1±3.0 years). The interaction term of intervention and time was statistically significant for Bazett’s corrected QT interval, Fridericia’s corrected QT interval, QT , PR , QRS duration, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, central systolic blood pressure, and central diastolic blood pressure (all P<0.001). The maximum change from baseline in Bazett's corrected QT interval for drinks A, B, and placebo were +17.9±13.9, +19.6±15.8, and +11.9±11.1 ms, respectively ( P=0.005 for ANOVA ) ( P=0.04 and <0.01, respectively compared with placebo). Peripheral and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure were statistically significantly different compared with placebo (all P<0.001). Conclusion Energy drinks significantly prolong the QT c interval and raise blood pressure. Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT03196908.
This study assessed sex differences in treatments, all-cause mortality, relative survival, and excess mortality following acute myocardial infarction.
Premature cardiac contractions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Though experts associate premature atrial contractions (PACs) and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) with caffeine, there are no data to support this relationship in the general population. As certain caffeinated products may have cardiovascular benefits, recommendations against them may be detrimental.
Recent randomized data suggest that calcium supplements may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Using a longitudinal cohort study, we assessed the association between calcium intake, from both foods and supplements, and atherosclerosis, as measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC).
Novel interventions are needed to improve lifestyle and prevent noncommunicable diseases, the leading cause of death and disability globally. This study aimed to systematically review, synthesize, and grade scientific evidence on effectiveness of novel information and communication technology to reduce noncommunicable disease risk.
Being unmarried is associated with decreased survival in the general population. Whether married, divorced, separated, widowed, or never-married status affects outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease has not been well characterized.
Population-based studies have revealed declining acute ischemic stroke (AIS) hospitalization rates in the United States, but no study has assessed recent temporal trends in race/ethnic-, age-, and sex-specific AIS hospitalization rates.
Background Domestic abuse (DA) against women is a global public health problem. Although the possible health burden could be substantial, the associations between DA and subsequent cardiometabolic disease (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus) and all-cause mortality are poorly understood. Methods and Results This retrospective cohort study consisted of UK-based primary care patients between January 1, 1995, to December 1, 2017. Overall, 18 547 women exposed to DA were matched to 72 231 unexposed women by age and lifestyle factors. The main outcomes, presented as adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs), were the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all-cause mortality. In total, 181 exposed women experienced a cardiovascular disease event compared with 644 of the unexposed control group, relating to an increased adjusted IRR of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.11-1.55; P=0.001). There was also an increased risk of subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus (adjusted IRR: 1.51; 95% CI, 1.30-1.76; P<0.001) and all-cause mortality (adjusted IRR: 1.44; 95% CI, 1.24-1.67; P<0.001) following exposure to DA. This observation was not seen with hypertension (adjusted IRR: 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.12; P=0.873). Conclusions There is an increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all-cause mortality in female survivors of DA. However, there is no association with the development of hypertension in this group, in keeping with previous literature. Considering the high prevalence of DA, clinicians should be made aware of the disproportionally increased risk and thus are encouraged to manage modifiable risk factors actively in this group.
Chronic electronic (e) cigarette users have increased resting cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study is to determine the role of nicotine versus non-nicotine constituents in e-cigarette emissions in causing these pathologies in otherwise healthy humans.
Background Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been associated with cardiometabolic risk. However, the association between total and type of SSB intake and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) end points such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization is limited. Methods and Results We examined the prospective association of baseline SSB consumption with incident CVD in 106 178 women free from CVD and diabetes mellitus in the CTS (California Teachers Study), a cohort of female teachers and administrators, followed since 1995. SSBs were defined as caloric soft drinks, sweetened bottled waters or teas, and fruit drinks, and derived from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. CVD end points were based on annual linkage with statewide inpatient hospitalization records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between SSB consumption and incident CVD. A total of 8848 CVD incident cases were documented over 20 years of follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed higher hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.34), revascularization (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.54]), and stroke (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.41) in women who consumed ≥1 serving per day of SSBs compared with rare/never consumers. We also observed a higher risk of CVD in women who consumed ≥1 serving per day of fruit drinks (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.00-2.01 [P trend=0.021]) and caloric soft drinks (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.44 [P trend=0.0002]), compared with rare/never consumers. Conclusions Consuming ≥1 serving per day of SSB was associated with CVD, revascularization, and stroke. SSB intake might be a modifiable dietary target to reduce risk of CVD among women.