SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of the American College of Surgeons

50

Reducing violence-related, intentional injury (including intentional firearm-related injury) requires a multifaceted, integrated public health approach. This requires engagement, responsibility and partnership across disciplines, geographic regions, and philosophic differences. A commitment to the values of civility, professionalism, humility and mutual respect are required.

Concepts: Health care, Public health, Health, Virtue, Preventive medicine

31

Women diagnosed with breast cancer often describe the process of treatment decision making as bewildering and worrisome. Patients who do not feel completely informed about their surgical options might make choices that are suboptimal or regretted later. The Institute of Medicine has called for more research on why breast cancer patients are inadequately informed about treatment options. The aims of the study were to explore how women become informed about their breast cancer surgery treatment options and to identify improvement opportunities.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Breast cancer, Chemotherapy, Physician, Breast, Surgical oncology, Mastectomy

28

Burnout among physicians affects mental health, performance and patient outcomes. Surgery residency is a high-risk time for burnout. We examined burnout and the psychological characteristics that may contribute to burnout vulnerability and resilience in a group of surgical trainees.

Concepts: Psychology, Medicine, Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Weight loss, Surgeon, Positive psychology

28

BACKGROUND: Flail chest is a life-threatening injury typically treated with supportive ventilation and analgesia. Several small studies have suggested large improvements in critical care outcomes after surgical fixation of multiple rib fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of surgical fixation and nonoperative management for flail chest injuries. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of previously published comparative studies using operative and nonoperative management of flail chest was performed. Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane databases were searched for relevant studies with no language or date restrictions. Quantitative pooling was performed using a random effects model for relevant critical care outcomes. Sensitivity analysis was performed for all outcomes. RESULTS: Eleven manuscripts with 753 patients met inclusion criteria. Only 2 studies were randomized controlled designs. Surgical fixation resulted in better outcomes for all pooled analyses including substantial decreases in ventilator days (mean 8 days, 95% CI 5 to 10 days) and the odds of developing pneumonia (odds ratio [OR] 0.2, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.32). Additional benefits included decreased ICU days (mean 5 days, 95% CI 2 to 8 days), mortality (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.48), septicemia (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.71), tracheostomy (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.20), and chest deformity (OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.60). All results were stable to basic sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest surgical fixation of flail chest injuries may have substantial critical care benefits; however, the analyses are based on the pooling of primarily small retrospective studies. Additional prospective randomized trials are still necessary.

Concepts: Comparison, Critical thinking, Medical statistics, Randomized controlled trial, Cultural studies, Analysis, Random effects model, Flail chest

27

Jehovah’s Witness (JW) patients undergoing liver or pancreas surgery represent a challenging ethical and medical problem, with few reports about their optimal management.

Concepts: Physician, Blood transfusion, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jehovah, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, Tetragrammaton

24

Abdominal component separation is commonly utilized for the closure of midline abdominal wounds. The value of each step in reducing tension has not been studied. Our aim is to test if component separation decreases tension in the midline closure and quantify the value of each procedural step.

Concepts: Psychology, Evaluation methods, Sociology

23

The central tenet of liver transplant organ allocation is to prioritize the sickest patients first. However, a 2007 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services regulatory policy, Conditions of Participation (COP), which mandates publically reported transplant center performance assessment and outcomes-based auditing, critically altered waitlist management and clinical decision making. We examine the extent to which COP implementation is associated with increased removal of the “sickest” patients from the liver transplant waitlist.

Concepts: Medicare, Liver, Decision theory, Organ transplant, 2000s music groups, Policy, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Medicaid

19

In July 2009, Arkansas began to annually fund $20 million for a statewide trauma system (TS). We studied injury deaths both pre-TS (2009) and post-TS (2013 to 2014), with attention to causes of preventive mortality, societal cost of those preventable mortality deaths, and benefit to tax payers of the lives saved.

Concepts: Investment, Physical trauma, Finance, Tax, Net present value, Rate of return, Internal rate of return, Taxpayer

19

Our primary objective was to demonstrate the utility and feasibility of the intraoperative assessment of colon and rectal perfusion using fluorescence angiography (FA) during left-sided colectomy and anterior resection. Anastomotic leak (AL) after colorectal resection increases morbidity, mortality, and, in cancer cases, recurrence rates. Inadequate perfusion may contribute to AL. The PINPOINT Endoscopic Fluorescence Imaging System allows for intraoperative assessment of anastomotic perfusion.

Concepts: Surgery, Digestive system, Colon, Rectum, Sigmoidoscopy, Diverticulitis, Pseudomembranous colitis, Defecation

18

The effectiveness of operating room headgear in preventing airborne contamination has been called into question. We hypothesized that bouffant style hats would be as effective in preventing bacterial and particulate contamination in the operating room compared with disposable or cloth skull caps, and bouffant style hats would have similar permeability, particle penetration, and porosity compared with skull caps.

Concepts: Environment, Effectiveness, Caps