SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

194

Despite recent research demonstrating associations between violence and depression in adults, links in adolescents are uncertain. This study aims to assess the longitudinal associations between young people’s depression and later violent outcomes.

Concepts: Domestic violence, Adolescence, Violence

132

89

Social transitions are increasingly common for transgender children. A social transition involves a child presenting to other people as a member of the “opposite” gender in all contexts (e.g., wearing clothes and using pronouns of that gender). Little is known about the well-being of socially transitioned transgender children. This study examined self-reported depression, anxiety, and self-worth in socially transitioned transgender children compared with 2 control groups: age- and gender-matched controls and siblings of transgender children.

Concepts: Psychology, Gender, Sociology, Childhood, English language, Positive psychology, Transgender, Clothing

88

Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population.

Concepts: Sociology, Autism, Bipolar disorder, Neural development, Neurodevelopmental disorder

75

We assessed the role of prenatal maternal smoking in risk for Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) and pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Concepts: Tourette syndrome, Treatment of Tourette syndrome, Tic, Tic disorder, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Tourettism

56

Prediction models have become frequent in the medical literature, but most published studies are conducted in a single setting. Heterogeneity between development and validation samples has been posited as a major obstacle for the generalization of models. We aimed to develop a multivariable prognostic model using sociodemographic variables easily obtainable from adolescents at age 15 to predict a depressive disorder diagnosis at age 18, and to evaluate its generalizability in two samples from diverse socioeconomic and cultural settings.

54

Original case descriptions of autism noted that parents of the affected children tended to be highly educated and intelligent, a characterization that has endured publicly. Recent genetic studies indicate that risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is associated with high intelligence. We examined the association between paternal intelligence and ASD, considering co-occurring intellectual disability (ID) and attention-deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD).

47

The relationship between sex/gender differences and autism has attracted a variety of research ranging from clinical and neurobiological to etiological, stimulated by the male bias in autism prevalence. Findings are complex and do not always relate to each other in a straightforward manner. Distinct but interlinked questions on the relationship between sex/gender differences and autism remain underaddressed. To better understand the implications from existing research and to help design future studies, we propose a 4-level conceptual framework to clarify the embedded themes.

Concepts: Scientific method, Medicine, Abstraction, Conceptual framework

47

To examine the factors associated with the persistence of childhood gender dysphoria (GD), and to assess the feelings of GD, body image, and sexual orientation in adolescence.

Concepts: Gender, Childhood, Gender identity, Sexual orientation, Transgender, Homosexuality

38

Previous studies have reported reduced cortical thickness and surface area and altered gyrification in frontal and temporal regions in adolescents with conduct disorder (CD). Although there is evidence that the clinical phenotype of CD differs between males and females, no studies have examined whether such sex differences extend to cortical and subcortical structure.

Concepts: Male, Female, Sexual dimorphism, Gender, Cerebral cortex, Sex, Gamete, Hermaphrodite