SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

75

We assessed the role of prenatal maternal smoking in risk for Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) and pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Concepts: Tourette syndrome, Treatment of Tourette syndrome, Tic, Tic disorder, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Tourettism

34

To examine the factors associated with the persistence of childhood gender dysphoria (GD), and to assess the feelings of GD, body image, and sexual orientation in adolescence.

Concepts: Gender, Childhood, Gender identity, Sexual orientation, Transgender, Homosexuality

33

Because models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) therapeutics emphasize benefits of both enhanced dopaminergic and noradrenergic signaling, strategies to enhance D1 and α2A agonism may yield enhanced clinical and cognitive responses. This study tested the hypothesis that combined effects of a dopamine and noradrenergic agonist, d-methylphenidate extended-release (DMPH) with guanfacine (GUAN), an α2A receptor agonist, would be clinically superior to either monotherapy and would have equal tolerability.

Concepts: Dopamine receptor, Serotonin, Agonist, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Dopamine, Methylphenidate, Amphetamine, Dopaminergic

28

The degree of functional impairment and adverse developmental outcomes in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) likely reflect interplay between genes and environment. To establish whether physical exercise might reduce the level of ADHD symptoms or ADHD-related impairments, we conducted a comprehensive review of the effect of exercise in children with ADHD. Findings on the impact of exercise in animals and typically developing human beings, and an overview of putative mechanisms involved, are also presented to provide the context in which to understand this review.

Concepts: Cell, Natural environment, Carbon, Developmental psychology, Humans

28

To evaluate the effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Training (ERT), a 17-session weekly group training for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms.

Concepts: Borderline personality disorder, Personality disorder, Histrionic personality disorder

27

An increasing number of studies has shown an association between parental age and psychiatric disorders. However, there are inconsistent results regarding whether age at parenthood is associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study is to examine whether low or advanced parental age is associated with ADHD.

Concepts: Cohort study, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Mental disorder, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies

27

Although oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is usually considered the mildest of the disruptive behavior disorders, it is a key factor in predicting young adult anxiety and depression and is distinguishable from normal childhood behavior. In an effort to understand possible subsets of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) that may differentially predict outcome, we used latent class analysis of mother report on the Conners' Parent Rating Scales Revised Short Forms (CPRS-R:S).

Concepts: Scientific method, Psychology, Set theory, Youth, Oppositional defiant disorder, Musical scale

26

The relationship between sex/gender differences and autism has attracted a variety of research ranging from clinical and neurobiological to etiological, stimulated by the male bias in autism prevalence. Findings are complex and do not always relate to each other in a straightforward manner. Distinct but interlinked questions on the relationship between sex/gender differences and autism remain underaddressed. To better understand the implications from existing research and to help design future studies, we propose a 4-level conceptual framework to clarify the embedded themes.

Concepts: Scientific method, Medicine, Abstraction, Conceptual framework

23

Neighborhood greenspace improves mental health of urban-dwelling populations, but its putative neurobehavioral benefits in adolescents remain unclear. We conducted a prospective study on urban-dwelling adolescents to examine the association between greenspace in residential neighborhood and aggressive behaviors.

Concepts: The Association, Aggression

22

Social transitions are increasingly common for transgender children. A social transition involves a child presenting to other people as a member of the “opposite” gender in all contexts (e.g., wearing clothes and using pronouns of that gender). Little is known about the well-being of socially transitioned transgender children. This study examined self-reported depression, anxiety, and self-worth in socially transitioned transgender children compared with 2 control groups: age- and gender-matched controls and siblings of transgender children.

Concepts: Psychology, Gender, Sociology, Childhood, English language, Positive psychology, Transgender, Clothing