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Journal: Journal of phycology

22

The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was cultured in five different growth regimes to obtain cells with different composition. Pairs of populations subjected to different treatments were then mixed in a communal culture regime that differed from those of the origin. After six hours, the ratio between the two populations was verified by flow cytometry. Alterations in this ratio were found when cells previously grown at 1 mM NH4+were mixed with GeO2- and 0.5 mM NH4+-grown cells. The nutritional background may thus make cells differently suited to new environmental conditions and afford advantages in terms of reproductive potential. Competitive interactions between populations may result from the differences in the expressed proteome and/or in the availability of tools for regulatory responses. This may have relevance to the persistence of phenotypically neutral variants present in the population best suited to the new condition, after the interaction of the conspecifics with different nutritional histories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Protein, Sociology, Flow cytometry, All rights reserved, Diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Diatoms, Copyright

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Prasinophytes (Chlorophyta) are a diverse, paraphyletic group of planktonic microalgae for which benthic species are largely unknown. Here, we report a sand-dwelling, marine prasinophyte with several novel features observed in clonal cultures established from numerous locations around Australia. The new genus and species, which we name Microrhizoidea pickettheapsiorum (Mamiellophyceae), alternates between a benthic palmelloid colony, where cell division occurs, and a planktonic flagellate. Flagellates are short lived, settle and quickly resorb their flagella, the basal bodies then nucleate novel tubular appendages, termed “microrhizoids”, that lack an axoneme and function to anchor benthic cells to the substratum. To our knowledge, microrhizoids have not been observed in any other green alga or protist, are slightly smaller in diameter than flagella, generally contain 9 microtubules, are long (3-5 times the length of flagella) and are not encased in scales. Following settlement, cell divisions result in a loose, palmelloid colony, each cell connected to the substratum by two microrhizoids. Flagellates are round to bean-shaped with two long, slightly uneven flagella. Both benthic cells and flagellates, along with their flagella, are encased in thin scales. Phylogenies based on the complete chloroplast genome of Microrhizoidea show it is clearly a member of the Mamiellophyceae, most closely related to Dolichomastix tenuilepsis. More taxon-rich phylogenetic analyses of the 18S rRNA gene, including metabarcodes from the Tara Oceans and Ocean Sampling Day projects, confidently show the distinctive nature of Microrhizoidea, and that the described biodiversity of the Mamiellophyceae is a fraction of its real biodiversity. The discovery of a largely benthic prasinophyte changes our perspective on this group of algae and, along with the observation of other potential benthic lineages in environmental sequences, illustrates that benthic habitats can be a rich ground for algal biodiscovery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

1

A marine, sand-dwelling, golden-brown alga is described from clonal cultures established from a high intertidal pool in southeastern Australia. This tiny, unicellular species, which we call the “golden paradox” (Chrysoparadoxa australica gen. et sp. nov.), is benthic, surrounded by a multilayered cell wall and attached to the substratum by a complex adhesive plug. Each vegetative cell gives rise to a single, naked zoospore with heterokont flagella that settles and may become briefly amoeboid prior to dividing. Daughter cells are initially amoeboid, then either permanently attach and return to the benthic stage or become motile again prior to final settlement. Two deeply lobed chloroplasts occupy opposite ends of the cell and are surrounded by only two membranes. The outer chloroplast membrane is continuous between the two chloroplasts via the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. Only two membranes occupy the chloroplast-nucleus interface, the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope and the inner chloroplast membrane. A small pyrenoid is found in each chloroplast and closely abuts the nucleus or protrudes into it. It contains an unusual, membrane bound inclusion that stains with SYBR green but is unlikely to be a nucleomorph. Phylogenies inferred from a 10-gene concatenated alignment show an early-branching position within the PX clade. The unusual morphological features and phylogenetic position indicate C. australica should be classified as a new class, Chrysoparadoxophyceae. Despite an atypical plastid, exploration of the C. australica transcriptome revealed typical heterokont protein targeting to the plastid. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

1

Maintaining buoyancy with gas-filled floats (pneumatocysts) is essential for some subtidal kelps to achieve an upright stature and compete for light used for photosynthesis. However, as these kelps grow up through the water column, pneumatocysts are exposed to substantial changes in hydrostatic pressure, which could cause complications as internal gases may expand or contract, potentially causing them to rupture, flood, and lose buoyancy. In this study, we investigate how pneumatocysts of Nereocystis luetkeana resist biomechanical stress and maintain buoyancy as they develop across a hydrostatic gradient. We measured internal pressure, material properties, and pneumatocyst geometry across a range of thallus sizes and collection depths to identify strategies used to resist pressure-induced mechanical failure. Contrary to expectations, all pneumatocysts had internal pressures less than atmospheric pressure, ensuring that thalli are always exposed to a positive pressure gradient and compressional loads, indicating that they are more likely to buckle than rupture at all depths. Small pneumatocysts collected from depths between 1 and 9 m (inner radius = 0.4 - 1.0 cm) were demonstrated to have elevated wall stresses under high compressive loads and are at greatest risk of buckling. Although small kelps do not adjust pneumatocyst material properties or geometry to reduce wall stress as they grow, they are about 3.4 times stronger than they need to be to resist hydrostatic buckling. When tested, pneumatocysts buckled around 35 m depth, which agrees with previous measures of lower limits due to light attenuation, suggesting that hydrostatic pressure may also define the lower limit of Nereocystis in the field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

1

The binary designation ‘Symbiodinium thermophilum’ was invalid due to the absence of an illustration as required by Article 44.2 of the ICN. Herein, it is validated. This species is the most common symbiont in reef corals in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG), the world’s hottest body of water sustaining reef coral growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

1

Early life stages of marine organisms are predicted to be vulnerable to ocean acidification. For macroalgae, reproduction and population persistence rely on spores to settle, adhere and continue the algal life cycle, yet the effect of ocean acidification on this critical life stage has been largely overlooked. We explicitly tested the biomechanical impact of reduced pH on early spore adhesion. We developed a shear flume to examine the effect of reduced pH on spore attachment time and strength in two intertidal rhodophyte macroalgae, one calcified (Corallina vancouveriensis) and one non-calcified (Polyostea robusta). Reduced pH delayed spore attachment of both species by 40-52% and weakened attachment strength in C. vancouveriensis, causing spores to dislodge at lower flow-induced shear forces, but had no effect on the attachment strength of P. robusta. Results are consistent with our prediction that reduced pH disrupts proper curing and gel formation of spore adhesives (anionic polysaccharides and glycoproteins) via protonation and cation displacement, although experimental verification is needed. Our results demonstrate that ocean acidification negatively, and differentially, impacts spore adhesion in two macroalgae. If results hold in field conditions, reduced ocean pH has the potential to impact macroalgal communities via spore dysfunction, regardless of the physiological tolerance of mature thalli. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Algae, Reproduction, Plant, Oceanography, Asexual reproduction, Ocean, Copyright, Ocean acidification

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In southeastern Ohio, active remediation of streams affected by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) has proven to be successful for some streams, while others have not recovered based on macroinvertebrate assessment. In this study, biofilms were collected from three Moderately Impaired, three Recovered, and two Unimpaired streams. The biodiversity was characterized by metabarcoding using two universal barcode markers (16S and 18S) along with two algal specific markers (UPA and rbcL) and high-throughput amplicon sequencing. For each marker, the ordination of Bray-Curtis Index calculated from the total Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) present in each stream showed the Unimpaired and Recovered streams clustered, while Moderately Impaired streams were more distant. Focusing on the algal ASVs, the Shannon index for the rbcL and UPA markers showed significantly lower alpha diversity in Moderately Impaired streams compared to Unimpaired streams, but the Recovered streams were not significantly different from the other two stream categories. The two universal markers together captured all algal phyla providing an outline of the diversity, but the two algal specific markers produced a greater number of ASVs and taxonomic depth for algal taxa. Further examination of the UPA marker revealed a drastic decrease in relative abundance of diatoms in Moderately Impaired streams compared to Recovered and Unimpaired streams. Likewise, diatom genera identified in the rbcL data and indicative of stream water quality showed marked differences in relative abundance among stream categories. Although all markers were useful, the algal specific UPA and rbcL contributed more insights into algal community differences among stream categories.

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A redefinition of the cyanobacterial lineage has been proposed based on phylogenomic analysis of distantly related non-phototrophic lineages. We define Cyanobacteria here as “Organisms in the domain bacteria able to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis with water as an electron donor and to reduce carbon dioxide as a source of carbon, or those secondarily evolved from such organisms.”

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Members of the class Mamiellophyceae comprise species that can dominate picophytoplankton diversity in polar waters. Yet polar species are often morphologically indistinguishable from temperate species, although clearly separated by molecular features. Here we examine four Mamiellophyceae strains from the Canadian Arctic. The 18S rRNA and Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) gene phylogeny place these strains within the family Mamiellaceae (Mamiellales, Mamiellophyceae) in two separate clades of the genus Mantoniella. ITS2 synapomorphies support their placement as two new species, Mantoniella beaufortii and Mantoniella baffinensis. Both species have round green cells with diameter between 3-5 µm, one long flagellum and a short flagellum (~1 µm) and are covered by spiderweb-like scales, making both species similar to other Mantoniella species. Morphologically, M. beaufortii and M. baffinensis are most similar to the cosmopolitan M. squamata with only minor differences in scale structure distinguishing them. Screening of global marine metabarcoding datasets indicates M. beaufortii has only been recorded in seawater and sea ice samples from the Arctic while no environmental barcode matches M. baffinensis. Like other Mamiellophyceae genera that have distinct polar and temperate species, the polar distribution of these new species suggests they are cold or ice-adapted Mantoniella species.

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Water motion in coastal areas can produce hydrodynamic forces that damage or dislodge benthic macroalgae if the tissues of macroalgae are not sufficiently strong. Some macroalgae vary their morphology and strength in response to ambient water motion, but little is known of how morphology and strength of macroalgae change relative to one another across flow regimes. Here, we use Turbinaria ornata, an ecologically important macroalga, to study how both the morphology and strength of macroalgae vary with ambient water motion. Typically, T. ornata exhibits weakening of its stipe when sexually mature, leading to breakage from the substratum and dispersal, which is beneficial for reproduction. Across three flow regimes, adult T. ornata increased its size but decreased its strength as water motion increased. However, the strength of T. ornata relative to the maximum hydrodynamic forces it is expected to encounter (the environmental safety factor) did not differ between flow regimes. Our results show that T. ornata can conform to its local flow habitat by varying both size and strength, similar to other macroalgae. Varying multiple traits between flow regimes suggests that T. ornata is capable of surviving a wide range of flow conditions, which may permit more control over the timing of its weakening, breakage from the substratum, and dispersal, even with future increases in flow velocities (e.g., large waves from storms) that are expected to occur frequently with climate change.