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Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of personality

52

Though initially charming and inviting, narcissists often engage in negative interpersonal behaviors. Identifying and avoiding narcissists therefore carries adaptive value. Whereas past research has found that people can judge others' grandiose narcissism from their appearance (including their faces), the cues supporting these judgments require further elucidation. Here, we investigated which facial features underlie perceptions of grandiose narcissism and how they convey that information.

39

This study investigates how obedience in a Milgram-like experiment is predicted by inter-individual differences.

Concepts: Stanford prison experiment, Milgram experiment

33

OBJECTIVE:  Two dimensions of the Big Five, Extraversion and Agreeableness, are strongly related to interpersonal behavior. Factor analysis has indicated that each of the Big Five contains two separable but related aspects. The present study examined the manner in which the aspects of Extraversion (Assertiveness and Enthusiasm) and Agreeableness (Compassion and Politeness) relate to interpersonal behavior and trait affiliation, with the hypothesis that these four aspects have a structure corresponding to the octants of the interpersonal circumplex. A second hypothesis was that measures of trait affiliation would fall between the Enthusiasm and Compassion aspects of Extraversion and Agreeableness, respectively, in the IPC. METHOD:  These hypotheses were tested in three demographically different samples (N = 469; 249; 409) using both behavioral frequency and trait measures of the interpersonal circumplex, in conjunction with the Big Five Aspect Scales (BFAS) and measures of trait affiliation. RESULTS: Both hypotheses were strongly supported. CONCLUSIONS:  These findings provide a more thorough and precise mapping of the interpersonal traits within the Big Five and support the integration of the Big Five with models of interpersonal behavior and trait affiliation.

Concepts: Scientific method, Psychology, Personality psychology, Human behavior, Personality traits, 16 Personality Factors, Agreeableness, Interpersonal Circumplex

31

The developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism, along with their consequences and origins, were examined in middle childhood.

Concepts: Trajectory

29

Social networking sites such as Facebook represent a unique and dynamic social environment.

Concepts: Human behavior, Web 2.0, Face transplant, Social network service, MySpace, Instant messaging, Facebook, Online social networking

29

In this article, the development of Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality disorder (PD) prototypes for the assessment of DSM-IV PDs are reviewed, as well as subsequent procedures for scoring individuals' FFM data with regard to these PD prototypes, including similarity scores and simple additive counts that are based on a quantitative prototype matching methodology. Both techniques, which result in very strongly correlated scores, demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity, and provide clinically useful information with regard to various forms of functioning. The techniques described here for use with FFM data are quite different from the prototype matching methods used elsewhere.

Concepts: Borderline personality disorder, Big Five personality traits

28

The purpose of this research is to quantitatively compare everyday situational experience around the world.

28

Over the past decade, there has been an explosion of interest in clinical applications of attachment theory. In the present article, we briefly describe John Bowlby’s model of therapeutic change, the therapeutic relationship, and the therapist’s role in emotional healing. We then review empirical evidence for three key propositions in Bowlby’s model. First, a client’s sense of security during therapy is crucial for facilitating therapeutic work. Second, a therapist’s own sense of security contributes to positive therapeutic outcomes. Third, attachment insecurities can be effectively reduced in therapy, and movement toward greater attachment security is central to achieving favorable therapeutic outcomes. In sum, research evidence confirms the importance of establishing what Bowlby called a safe haven and a secure base within a therapeutic relationship.

Concepts: Therapy, Attachment theory, Psychoanalysis, John Bowlby

25

The current study seeks to replicate and extend principal findings reported in The World at 7:00 (Guillaume et al., 2016), a project that examined the psychological experience of situations in 20 countries.

25

Although perfectionism is a prominent personality disposition, only a few longitudinal studies have investigated how perfectionism develops. Theoretical models and qualitative studies have posited that academic success is a developmental antecedent of perfectionism. Yet, quantitative studies tend to interpret the cross-sectional relationships as academic success being an outcome of perfectionism. In light of these gaps in the literature, the present study was the first to investigate the longitudinal relationships between perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, academic achievement, and academic efficacy examining academic success as an antecedent of perfectionism.

Concepts: Time, Scientific method, Psychology, Longitudinal study, Research methods, Cross-sectional study, Sociology, Qualitative research