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Journal: Journal of periodontal research


Hydrogen sulfide ( H2 S ) is a volatile sulfur compound responsible for physiological halitosis. H2 S was also reported as having periodontal pathologic activities. Gingival crevicular epithelium is the first barrier against periodontal pathogens and their products; oral keratinocyte stem cells OKSCs play key roles in maintaining this barrier. The p53 pathway is responsible for regulating key biological events. Increased apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest of DNA repair can affect keratinocyte stem cells, having a direct impact on the architecture of the oral epithelial tissue. However, the link between H2 S , p53 activity and OKSCs has not yet been fully explored. The main objective of the present study was to explore the implications of the p53 pathway in OKSCs following exposure to H2 S .

Concepts: DNA, Bacteria, Chemical element, Skin, P53, Sulfur, Hydrogen sulfide, Sulfide


Gingival crevicular fluid has been suggested as a possible source of biomarkers for periodontal disease progression. This paper describes a technique for the analysis of gingival crevicular fluid from individual sites using mass spectrometry. It explores the novel use of mass spectrometry to examine the relationship between the relative amounts of proteins and peptides in gingival crevicular fluid and their relationship with clinical indices and periodontal attachment loss in periodontal maintenance patients. The aim of this paper was to assess whether the mass spectrometric analysis of gingival crevicular fluid may allow for the site-specific prediction of periodontal disease progression.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry


Emingil G, Han B, Özdemir G, Tervahartiala T, Vural C, Atilla G, Baylas H, Sorsa T. The effect of azithromycin, as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal treatment, on microbiological parameters and gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers in generalized aggressive periodontitis. J Periodont Res 2012; 47: 729-739. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S Background and Objective:  To study the effectiveness of azithromycin in combination with nonsurgical periodontal therapy on clinical and microbiological parameters, and on the MMP-8 and TIMP-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid, over a 6-mo time-period in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis. Material and Methods:  Thirty-two patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study. They were randomly assigned to azithromycin or placebo groups (500 mg once daily for 3 d). Probing depth, clinical attachment levels, presence of bleeding on probing and plaque were recorded. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were obtained from one single-rooted tooth, while microbiological samples were obtained from two single-rooted teeth, all with a probing depth of ≥ 6 mm. Microbiological parameters were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and total bacteria. Gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers were determined by immunofluorometric assay and ELISA. Results:  All clinical parameters improved, and microbiological parameters and gingival crevicular fluid MMP-8 levels significantly decreased, over the 6-mo period (p < 0.05); both groups demonstrated similar improvements. The azithromycin group presented a higher percentage of deep pockets resolved (probing depth reduction of ≥ 3 mm from baseline) compared with the placebo group at 1 mo (p < 0.05). Conclusion:  Adjunctive azithromycin therapy provides no additional benefit over nonsurgical periodontal treatment on clinical parameters, microbiological parameters and gingival crevicular fluid biochemical markers investigated in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis.

Concepts: Periodontology, Gingiva, Placebo, Periodontitis, Dentistry, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Aggressive periodontitis


Miranda J, Brunet Ll, Roset P, Farré M, Mendieta C. Reliability of two measurement indices for gingival enlargement. J Periodont Res 2012; 47: 776-782. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S Background and Objective:  The objective of this study was to analyze the concordance of the vertical gingival overgrowth index (GOi) and the horizontal Miranda & Brunet index (MBi) and to compare their reliability and reproducibility for an early diagnosis of gingival enlargement. A wide range of methods has been employed to determine the severity of drug-induced gingival enlargement (DIGE) that has resulted in uncertainty with regard to the prevalence of this side effect. In recent studies, different indices have been used to grade DIGE. The large variability observed between studies and the differences between vertical and horizontal gingival-enlargement measurements could be the result of the use of nonreliable indices during the measurement process. Some indices involve invasive procedures that require many measurements, or even a data-processing system, while others are less convenient and technically expensive and complex. In previous studies we used two complementary indices - the vertical GOi and the horizontal MBi. The results of these studies found some differences between both indices, with the MBi rendering higher estimates of DIGE prevalence that was attributed to its greater sensitivity for the detection of minimal changes in gingival thickness. To our knowledge, there are no studies comparing different measurement indices for gingival enlargement that are supported by statistical concordance analysis. Material and Methods:  Twelve plaster casts from patients who had worn orthodontic brackets, and who had different degrees of chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement, were analyzed. Three previously trained examiners registered twice the degree of buccal overgrowth, using the GOi and MBi, in all cast models with a minimum interval of 7 d between the first and the second evaluation. In total, from each cast, measurements from 16 gingival sites were taken using the GOi, and from nine gingival units (mesial and distal sites measurements) using the MBi. Concordance analysis of the registered measurements (intra-examiner and among examiners) for each index and between indices was assessed using the nonweighted Kappa index with a confidence interval of 95%. Results:  We obtained 648 values for the GOi and the MBi. The overall score 0 (indicating absence of enlargement) was 32.7% and 19.8% for GOi and MBi, respectively, score 1 (light/moderate) was 39.7% and 48.1%, and score 2 (severe) was 27.6% and 32.1%. Concordance analysis for each index showed intra-examiner Kappa values of 0.820 for the GOi and 0.830 for the MBi. Interexaminer Kappa values were 0.720 for the GOi and 0.770 for the MBi. Concordance between indices showed Kappa values for the same examiner of 0.600, whereas concordance among different examiners was 0.550. Discrepancies between indices indicated a systematic skew, with 79-82.1% of discrepancy associated with a higher value for the MBi compared with the GOi. Conclusion:  Both gingival enlargement indices analyzed are reliable, complementary and applicable for measuring gingival overgrowth. However, the MBi shows, with fewer measurements, a greater sensitivity than the GOi for the detection of the early stages of gingival enlargement, being adequate for the screening of large populations at risk.

Concepts: Measurement, Metrology, Psychometrics, Units of measurement, Systems of measurement, Index, Gingival enlargement, Phenytoin


Herbal drugs are commonly used in the treatment of several diseases, including periodontitis. So far, no systematic review had evaluated the evidence regarding the efficacy of these agents in the treatment of periodontal disease. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the effect of local application of phytotherapic agents as adjuncts to scaling and root planing (SRP), compared to SRP alone, on clinical parameters of chronic periodontal patients. Only randomized controlled trials of at least 3 months follow-up, of SRP alone in association with local phytotherapic agents were included. MEDLINE (PubMed), Google Scholar and LILACS databases were searched for articles published up to October 2016. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted for clinical attachment level and probing pocket depth (PPD) change after treatment. Of 1861 papers potentially relevant, 7 were included. All studies showed that periodontal treatment in association with local phytotherapic delivery promotes a significant PPD reduction and the majority of them showed clinical attachment level gain. The local use of phytotherapy as an adjunct to SRP may promote additional benefits in PPD reduction and clinical attachment level gain. However, these results must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size, high risk of bias and heterogeneity of the studies.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Sample size, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Effectiveness, Periodontology, Periodontitis, Periodontal disease


The specific pathogenesis of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) has not yet been clarified, and few studies have focused on the association between GAgP and metabolomics. To elucidate the roles of metabolic profiles in the status of GAgP, this study aimed to identify the differential metabolic profiles between patients with GAgP and healthy controls using an untargeted metabolomic profiling method.


Disruption of transcriptional regulation is a confounding factor associated with a wide range of human inflammatory diseases. To investigate mechanistic links between transcription factor DEC1 and pathways underlying inflammation, wild-type and DEC1 knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice were treated with Porphyromonas gingivalis (or carboxymethyl cellulose as a control) to induce periodontal inflammation. It provoked an inflammatory response within the oral environment, which showed robust variation in alveolar bone resorption and expression of inflammatory cytokines.


The oral microbiome may help to maintain systemic health, including how it affects blood glucose levels; however, direct evidence linking the oral microbiome with diabetes is lacking.

Concepts: Nutrition, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes, Blood sugar, Evidence law


Accumulating findings revealed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are crucial regulator molecules in the progression of periodontitis. This study aimed to investigate the biological roles and mechanisms of lncRNA-01126 in the progression of periodontitis.


Evidence suggests that periodontitis has a negative effect on the quality of life of an individual, with increased impacts by greater disease severity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between quality of life and the presence of different severity and forms of periodontitis (aggressive and chronic), compared to a disease-free control group.